SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

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Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) lead to elevation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3)-inf lammasome. In this study, we elucidated whether NLRP3 -inf lammasome is activated by DEPs and whether antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) could inhibit such activation.

Concepts: Protein, Oxygen, Lung, Mitochondrion, Gasoline, Oxidative phosphorylation, Reactive oxygen species, Glutathione

23

Highly caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are popular with adolescents and young adults, but longitudinal consumption patterns are poorly understood especially in relation to other substance use.

Concepts: Coffee, Caffeine, Soft drink, Energy drink, Red Bull, Coca-Cola, Guarana, Jolt Cola

23

Proper treatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS) involves three pivotal processes, dewatering, anaerobic digestion, and pollutants removal, which need to be re-assessed urgently. Although many traditional sludge treatments have been developed, it is prudent to enhance the efficiency of sludge treatment using multifunctional, flexible, and environmentally friendly surfactants. With regard to sludge dewatering, surfactants can weaken the binding interaction between sludge flocs and promote the dissolution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), resulting in the release of bound water. Using surfactants in anaerobic digestion promotes the release of enzymes trapped in sludge and improves the activity of enzymes during hydrolysis. Owing to their characteristic encapsulation of hydrophobes into self-assembled aggregates (micelles), surfactants can form host-guest complexes with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, surfactants can enhance the desorption of heavy metals and prevent the emergence of heavy metal residue. This review summarizes the current surfactant-based sludge treatment technologies according to their roles in sludge disposal solutions. Then, possible mechanisms of surfactants in sludge dewatering, anaerobic digestion, and the removal of organic pollutants and heavy metals are analysed systemically. Finally, changes to sludge treatment via the aid of surfactants are highlighted. This review presents the comprehensive advances in the use of surfactants in WAS reduction, recycling, and risk relief, underscoring their roles in increasing economic efficiency and ensuring environmental quality.

Concepts: Protein, Environment, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Anaerobic digestion, Aromaticity, Heavy metal music, Heavy metal, Tungsten

23

A 54-year-old African-American man presented with 2 years of progressively worsening dyspnea and anasarca. Over the past 6 months he gained 30 lbs with worsening lower extremity, abdominal wall, and scrotal edema. A recent workup for cardiac, renal, and liver disease, including two-dimensional echocardiogram, liver and renal function tests, and abdominal ultrasound, was unremarkable. He reported a 15-pack year history of smoking and quit 3 years ago. Chest radiograph at that time revealed bilateral pleural effusions that were both reportedly milky in appearance when drained by thoracenteses.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Organ, Liver function tests, Pleural effusion, Peritoneum, Thorax, Abdominal cavity

23

Given its proximity to northern Africa, southern Spain is regularly affected by high-altitude African intrusions. This determines a well-defined wind dynamics at surface levels. Although this weather event-mainly recorded in spring and summer-coincides with the flowering season of many wind pollinated species, its potential influence on long term airborne pollen transport has been not investigated in detail. We analyse their influence on olive pollen transport at surface level in south Spain. Daily and bi-hourly olive pollen data from 2010 to 2015, recorded at two sites 150km apart, Málaga (coast) and Córdoba (inland), were analysed together with 1) air masses at 300m above ground level (m.a.g.l.), 2) surface wind direction and 3) surface wind speed over the same period. Air masses at 3000m.a.g.l. were used to identify the periods under the influence of African intrusions. The combined analysis has enabled the identification of different pollen patterns and source contributions. In Málaga, hourly pollen peaks were recorded during the early morning coinciding with the arrival of north-westerly winds (developing sea-land breezes), with a minimal impact of local pollen sources; in Córdoba, by contrast, pollen concentrations reflected the joint contribution of local and long term sources, being the maximum concentrations associated with the arrival of southerly air masses in the afternoon. These results help to understand the potential distant sources and back-trajectories of olive pollen detected. In our case pollen from sources located at the west-northwest areas in the case of Malaga, and from the south in Cordoba. These results reinforce the idea that combined studies between synoptic meteorological and aerobiological data together with different atmospheric height air masses data, offer us a better explanation and understanding of the behaviour and the potential sources of recorded airborne data in a given place.

Concepts: Weather, Transport, Spain, Meteorology, Southern United States, Wind, Wind power, Wind speed

23

A detailed investigation was conducted to study heavy metal contamination in road dust from four regions of Xi'an, Northwest China. The concentrations of eight heavy metals Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were determined by X-Ray Fluorescence. The mean concentrations of these elements were: 30.9mgkg(-1) Co, 145.0mgkg(-1) Cr, 54.7mgkg(-1) Cu, 510.5mgkg(-1) Mn, 30.8mgkg(-1) Ni, 124.5mgkg(-1) Pb, 69.6mgkg(-1) V and 268.6mgkg(-1) Zn. There was significant enrichment of Pb, Zn, Co, Cu and Cr based on geo-accumulation index value. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that levels of Cu, Pb, Zn, Co and Cr were controlled by anthropogenic activities, while levels of Mn, Ni and V were associated with natural sources. Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression were applied to determine the source apportionment. The results showed that traffic was the main source with a percent contribution of 53.4%. Natural sources contributed 26.5%, and other anthropogenic pollution sources contributed 20.1%. Clear heavy metal pollution hotspots were identified by GIS mapping. The location of point pollution sources and prevailing wind direction were found to be important factors in the spatial distribution of heavy metals.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Statistics, Multivariate statistics, Lead, Heavy metal music, Wind, Heavy metal, Tungsten

0

High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection progression should be considered a critical factor for preventing cervical cancer, although most infections are transient and rarely persist. This study aimed to examine the specific types of HPV infections, their change patterns, and the potential risk factors among Korean women.

Concepts: Immune system, Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Gardasil, Cervarix

0

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) can be performed when node-positive disease is converted to node-negative status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). Tattooing nodes might improve accuracy but supportive data are limited. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of charcoal tattooing metastatic axillary lymph node (ALN) at presentation followed by SLNB after NCT in breast cancers.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Chemotherapy, Sentinel lymph node

0

Two polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymers differing in molecular mass (49 and 78 kDa), but possessing the same PEO cylindrical morphology, are examined to elucidate their molecular dynamics. Of particular interest here is the molecular motion of the PEO blocks involved in the rigid amorphous fraction (RAF). Analysis of complementary thermal calorimetry and X-ray scattering data confirm the presence of a microphase-separated morphology, as well as semi-crystalline structure, in each copolymer. Molecular motion within the copolymer systems is monitored by dielectric and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Results reported herein reveal the existence of two local, Arrhenius-type processes attributed to non-cooperative local motion of PEO segments involved in fully amorphous and rigid amorphous PEO microphases. In both systems, two structural relaxations governed by glass transition phenomena are identified and assigned to cooperative segmental motion in the fully amorphous phase (the  process) and the RAF (the c process). We measure the temperature dependence of the dynamics associated with all the processes mentioned above and propose that these local processes are associated with corresponding cooperative segmental motion in both copolymer systems. In marked contrast to the thermal activation of the  process as discerned in both copolymers, the c process appears to be a sensitive probe of the copolymer nanostructure. That is, the copolymer with shorter PEO blocks exhibits more highly restricted cooperative dynamics of PEO segments in the RAF, which can be explained in terms of the greater constraint imposed by the glassy PS matrix on the PEO blocks comprising smaller cylindrical microdomains.

Concepts: Molecule, Polymer, Copolymer, Magnetic resonance imaging, Viscosity, Glass, Glass transition, Atomic mass unit

0

Strong field sequential ionization of symmetric-top CH3I molecules is studied experimentally by using a combined method of femtosecond laser induced impulsive alignment and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Both alignment and angular dependent ion yields have been measured and the sequential ionization of multi-electron has been discussed. It’s find that the maximum ionization happens when the polarization of probe laser is perpendicular to the internuclear axis of molecules, and the signal of fragment ions peaks at the polarization of probe laser is parallel to the internuclear axis of molecules. The angular distribution of ions indicated that ionization of HOMO like orbitals are correspond to the generation of charged parents ions, and ionization of HOMO-1 like orbitals are correspond to the generation of fragment ions. The sequential release of multi-electron for Coulomb explosion channels are studied by analysis the time evolutions of multi-charged In+ (n=1-4) signals.

Concepts: Electron, Electric charge, Mass spectrometry, Molecule, Chemistry, Atom, Ion, Ion source