SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

161

To test whether a full moon contributes to motorcycle related deaths.

138

Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic, idiopathic, relapsing immune-mediated disease involving multiple organs, and is characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, ocular disease, gastrointestinal ulcers, vascular diseases, and skin lesions. In particular, gastrointestinal involvement in BD is followed by severe complications, including massive bleeding, bowel perforation, and fistula, which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. However, the management of intestinal BD has not yet been properly established. Intestinal BD patients with a severe clinical course experience frequent disease aggravations and often require recurrent corticosteroid and/or immunomodulatory therapies, or even surgery. However, a considerable number of patients with intestinal BD are often refractory to conventional therapies such as corticosteroids and immunomodulators. Recently, there has been a line of evidence suggesting that biologics such as infliximab and adalimumab are effective in treating intestinal BD. Moreover, new biologics targeting proteins other than tumor necrosis factor α are emerging and are under active investigation. Therefore, in this paper, we review the current therapeutic strategies and new clinical data for the treatment of intestinal BD.

138

In this study, a 107 kDa protease from psychrophilic Janthinobacterium lividum PAMC 26541 was purified by anion exchange chromatography. The specific activity of the purified protease was 264 U/mg, and the overall yield was 12.5%. The J. lividum PAMC 25641 protease showed optimal activity at pH 7.0-7.5 and 40°C. Protease activity was inhibited by PMSF, but not by DTT. Based on the N-terminal sequence of the purified protease, the gene encoding the cold-adapted protease from J. lividum PAMC 25641 was cloned into the pET-28a(+) vector and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) as an intracellular soluble protein.

27

To test whether high levels of reported pride are associated with subsequent falls.

7

Objective To analyse stage specific incidence of breast cancer in the Netherlands where women have been invited to biennial mammography screening since 1989 (ages 50-69) and 1997 (ages 70-75), and to assess changes in breast cancer mortality and quantified overdiagnosis.Design Population based study.Setting Mammography screening programme, the Netherlands.Participants Dutch women of all ages, 1989 to 2012.Main outcome measures Stage specific age adjusted incidence of breast cancer from 1989 to 2012. The extra numbers of in situ and stage 1 breast tumours associated with screening were estimated by comparing rates in women aged 50-74 with those in age groups not invited to screening. Overdiagnosis was estimated after subtraction of the lead time cancers. Breast cancer mortality reductions and overdiagnosis during 2010-12 were computed without (scenario 1) and with (scenario 2) a cohort effect on mortality secular trends.Results The incidence of stage 2-4 breast cancers in women aged 50 or more was 168 per 100 000 in 1989 and 166 per 100 000 in 2012. Screening would be associated with a 5% mortality reduction in scenario 1 and with no influence on mortality in scenario 2. In both scenarios, improved treatments would be associated with 28% reductions in mortality. Overdiagnosis has steadily increased over time with the extension of screening to women aged 70-75 and with the introduction of digital mammography. After deduction of clinical lead time cancers, 33% of cancers found in women invited to screening in 2010-12 and 59% of screen detected cancers would be overdiagnosed.Conclusions The Dutch mammography screening programme seems to have little impact on the burden of advanced breast cancers, which suggests a marginal effect on breast cancer mortality. About half of screen detected breast cancers would represent overdiagnosis.

5

To determine whether a behavioral intervention delivered through a video game can improve the appropriateness of trauma triage decisions in the emergency department of non-trauma centers.

5

To determine which potentially modifiable risk factors, including socioeconomic, lifestyle/dietary, cardiometabolic, and inflammatory factors, are associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

5

Objective To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes.Design Retrospective population based cohort study.Setting Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km2), UK, from 2006 to 2010.Participants 540 365 singleton term live births.Main outcome measures Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight.Results Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 μg/m3 nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 73 μg/m3 nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14 μg/m3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), 23 μg/m3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), and 32 μg/m3 ozone (O3). Average daytime (LAeq,16hr) and night-time (Lnight) road traffic A-weighted noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx, PM2.5, PM10, and source specific PM2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM2.5 traffic exhaust) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM2.5 traffic non-exhaust) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM2.5 traffic exhaust and PM2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM2.5>13.8 μg/m3during pregnancy.Conclusions The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes.

0

Chemical calcium indicators have been commonly used to monitor calcium (Ca2+) activity in cell bodies, i.e., somata, of isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons. Recent studies have shown that dorsal root ganglion somata play an essential role in soma-glia interactions and actively participate in the transmission of nociceptive signals. It is therefore desirable to develop methods to study Ca2+ activity in neurons and glia in intact dorsal root ganglia. In our previous studies, we found that incubation of intact dorsal root ganglia with acetoxymethyl dye resulted in efficient Ca2+ dye loading into glial cells but limited dye loading into neurons. Here, we introduce a useful method to load Ca2+ dyes in intact dorsal root ganglion neurons through electroporation. We found that electroporation greatly facilitated loading of Fluo-4 acetoxymethyl, Oregon green bapta-1-488 acetoxymethyl, and Fluo-4 pentapotassium salt into dorsal root ganglion neurons. In contrast, electroporation did not further facilitate dye loading into glia. Using electroporation followed by incubation of acetoxymethyl form Ca2+ dye, we can load acetoxymethyl Ca2+ dye well in both neurons and glia. With this approach, we found that inflammation induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant significantly increased the incidence of neuron-glia interactions in dorsal root ganglia. We also confirmed the actions of capsaicin and morphine on Ca2+ responses in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Thus, by promoting the loading of Ca2+ dye in neurons and glia through electroporation and incubation, Ca2+ activities in neurons and neuron-glia interactions can be well studied in intact dorsal root ganglia.

0

Fumarase catalyzes the reversible, stereospecific hydration/dehydration of fumarate to L-malate during the Kreb’s cycle. In the crystal structure of the tetrameric fumarase, it was found that some of the active site residues S145, T147, N188 G364 and H235 had water-mediated hydrogen bonding interactions with pyromellitic acid and citrate which help to the protonation state for the conversion of fumarate to malate. When His 235 is mutated with Asn (H235N), water-mediated interactions were lost due to the shifting of active site water molecule by 0.7 Å away. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were also carried out by NAMD and analyzed using Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement (AMBER) program to better understand the conformational stability and other aspects during the binding of pyromellitic acid and citrate with native and mutant FH. The role of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions was also analyzed. The present study confirms that the H235N mutation has a major effect on the catalytic activity of fumarase which is evident from the biochemical studies.