SciCombinator

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The incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is particularly high in patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD). Novel contrast-sparing strategies are warranted to guarantee the benefit of revascularization in this challenging and growing patient population. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an ultra-low contrast volume percutaneous coronary intervention (ULC-PCI) protocol in patients with severe CKD.

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Petroleum industry is one of the fastest growing industries, and it significantly contributes to economic growth in developing countries like India. The wastewater from a petroleum industry consist a wide variety of pollutants like petroleum hydrocarbons, mercaptans, oil and grease, phenol, ammonia, sulfide, and other organic compounds. All these compounds are present as very complex form in discharged water of petroleum industry, which are harmful for environment directly or indirectly. Some of the techniques used to treat oily waste/wastewater are membrane technology, photocatalytic degradation, advanced oxidation process, electrochemical catalysis, etc. In this review paper, we aim to discuss past and present scenario of using various treatment technologies for treatment of petroleum industry waste/wastewater. The treatment of petroleum industry wastewater involves physical, chemical, and biological processes. This review also provides scientific literature on knowledge gaps and future research directions to evaluate the effect(s) of various treatment technologies available.

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Dental Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) exposure parameters should be optimized according to patient-specific indications, mainly for children that are most vulnerable to harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to determine optimized kV settings for pediatric acquisitions for a dental CBCT device.

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Vascular complications after liver trans-plant can be lethal. High levels of suspicion and aggressive use of diagnostic tools may help with early diagnosis and treatment. Here, we share our experiences regarding this topic.

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Human infections of novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) emerged in early 2013 and caused about 40% case-fatality through 2017. Therefore, development of influenza H7N9 vaccines is critical for pandemic preparedness. Currently, there are three means of production of commercial influenza vaccines: egg-based, mammalian cell-based, and insect cell-based platforms. The insect cell-based platform has the advantage of high speed in producing recombinant protein. In this study, we evaluate the stability and immunogenicity of two different influenza H7 HA expression constructs generated using the baculovirus system, including membrane-based full-length HA (mH7) and secreted ectodomain-based H7 (sH7). The mH7 construct could form an oligomer-rosette structure and had a high hemagglutinin (HA) titer 8192. In contrast to mH7, the sH7 construct could not form an oligomer-rosette structure and did not have HA titer before cross-linking with anti-His antibody. Thermal stability tests showed that the sH7 and mH7 constructs were unstable at 43 °C and 52 °C, respectively. In a mice immunization study, the mH7 construct but not the sH7 construct could induce robust HI and neutralizing antibody titers. In conclusion, further development of the mH7 vaccine candidate is desirable.

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Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and short-term prognosis of Holmes' tremor (HT) patients. Methods: The clinical and imaging data of HT patients in 5 teaching hospitals between January 2014 and January 2018 were retrospectively analyzed, and Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (TRS) was used to compare the clinical severity and short-term prognosis between the different subtypes. Results: (1) The time from primary disease to tremor onset was 2 days to 20 months (median time 29 d) in 23 patients with HT enrolled, and the most common cause of HT was cerebrovascular disease (78.3%). (2) The most common involved locations were midbrain (65.2%), thalamus (47.8%) and cerebellum (30.4%). No significant difference in total TRS scores between the isolated lesion group (12 cases) and multiple lesions group (11 cases) (P=0.57), while the scores of the mesencephalic group (15 cases) was significantly higher than the non-mesencephalic group (8 cases) (P=0.00). (3) One case was treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS), while 22 cases were treated with medical therapy. Levodopa combined with clonazepam (7/12) and single levodopa (9/20) were partially effective. (4) At the 3-month follow-up after discharge, patients received DBS had good prognosis. Among the 22 patients treated with medicine, only 8 (36.4%) patients had good outcomes. The short-term prognosis was not significantly different between the isolated and multiple lesion groups (P=0.40), while it was worse in the mesencephalic group than the non-mesencephalic group (P=0.02). Conclusion: The most common cause of HT is cerebrovascular disease, and primary lesions are midbrain, thalamus, and cerebellum. The pharmacologic agents are partially valid for disease control of HT and the short-term prognosis is poor, while the patients with mesencephalic involvement have more severe tremor and worse prognosis.

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Objective: To study the clinical symptoms, copper metabolism and imaging characteristics of Wilson disease (WD) carriers and to explore the treatment strategy of WD carriers. Methods: Forty WD carriers, 40 WD patients and 20 normal controls from the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from July 2007 to May 2018 were included. The modified Young scale was used for neural symptom scoring, and Child grading of liver function, mental symptoms rating scale, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) inspection, metal metabolism tests were also applied to all the included subjects. Corrected phase (CP) was measured by SWI. WD carriers were divided into symptomatic group and asymptomatic group. Symptomatic WD carriers were treated with penicillamine for 2 weeks and zinc gluconate for 3 months, then their neurological symptoms, liver function grade, metal metabolism index were rechecked. Results: Six WD carriers presented with some clinical symptoms, including 5 with neurological symptoms and 4 with liver dysfunction. The score of Hamilton anxiety (HAMA) scale of symptomatic WD carriers was higher than that of normal control group (P=0.021). 85% of carriers had ceruloplasmin level less than 0.26 g/L. 80% of carriers had serum copper between normal controls and WD patients. The free copper level of WD carriers was lower than that of WD patients (P=0.012, 0.019). Urinary copper in symptomatic WD carriers was higher than normal controls (P=0.047). The CP values of thalamus, globus pallidus and putamen in symptomatic WD carriers were lower than those in normal control group. After treatment with penicillamine in symptomatic WD carriers, urinary copper was higher than that before treatment (P=0.036). After treatment, the liver enzymes of symptomatic WD carriers returned to normal, and the score of modified Young scale was lower than before treatment (P=0.031). Conclusions: Mild copper metabolism abnormality is seen in WD carriers. A few carriers have neurological symptoms such as limb tremors, or liver symptoms such as abnormal liver enzymes. Abnormal copper metabolism is more serious in symptomatic WD carriers than in asymptomatic WD carriers. Symptomatic WD carriers can be treated with zinc gluconate.

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Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine whether there was gender difference in clinical manifestations and comorbidities in the patients with Spondyloarthritis (SpA) in China. Methods: 346 patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA were recruited from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, including 280 males and 66 females. A comparison was conducted in terms of age at onset, disease course, family history, HLA-B27 positivity, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP), the bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) and AS disease activity score (ASDAS), and comorbidities between male and female patients. Results: Compared with female patients, male patients were younger at disease onset (22±7 vs 27±9, P<0.001),had higher rates of morning stiffness (74.3%), and higher scores of CRP and ASDAS-CRP (P<0.010, P=0.014). However, no significant gender difference was observed in other clinical parameters like clinical manifestations, family history, HLA-B27 positivity, BASDAI, and BASFI and treatment. Male SpA patients had a higher prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (26.2%) than that of female patients (8.3%), and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis (30.5% vs 14.3%,P<0.01), especially with a lower lumbar T score. Logistic regression analysis reviewed that limited weight (OR=0.94, P<0.001), high ASDAS-CRP (OR=1.58, P=0.006) and male (OR=8.02, P=0.004) are more inclined to have osteoporosis. Conclusion: Compared with female patients, male patients were younger at disease onset and higher scores of CRP and ASDAS-CRP. No significant gender difference was observed in clinical manifestations, family history, HLA-B27 positivity, BASDAI, and BASFI and treatment. Male SpA patients had a higher prevalence of HBV infection and osteoporosis than female patients. Comorbidities should be paid more attention in the patients with SpA.

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Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the therapeutic effect and influencing factors of the modified Karlsson operation (anchor method) in treating chronic rupture of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). Methods: From August 2010 to May 2014, the data of 24 patients with calcaneofibular ligament rupture treated in Institute of Sports Medicine, Third Hospital of Peking University were retrospectively analyzed. All cases were repaired with modified Karlsson operation (anchor method). There were 14 males and 10 females, with an average age of (30±9) years, and the average body mass index (BMI) was (25±5) kg/m(2). Visual analogue pain score (VAS), American Foot and Ankle Surgery Association score (AOFAS), Tegner knee motion score, ankle stability and mobility were followed up and analyzed. The paired t test was used to compare the normal distribution data before and after the operation. Results: The average follow-up time was (41±13) months. Compared with pre-operation, VAS score decreased significantly at the last follow-up [0(0,7) vs 5(0,8), Z=4.13,P=0.000], AOFAS score increased significantly (94±10 vs 70±14, t=8.94, P<0.05), Tegner score increased significantly (4.7±1.5 vs 2.8±1.3, t=6.87, P<0.05), all improved significantly. AOFAS score was excellent in 19 cases, good in 4 cases and moderate in 1 case, the excellent and good rate was 95.8%. Among them, 20 cases (83.3%) were satisfied with the recovery effect after the operation. Postoperative sprain occurred in 5 cases (20.8%) and ankle mobility was limited in 3 cases (12.5%). Conclusions: The modified Karlsson operation (anchor method) can restore the stability of the ankle joint by treating the chronic rupture of CFL. It is an effective therapy for lateral ankle instability.

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Objective: To discuss the correlation between histogram analysis of quantitative mono-exponential, bi-exponential and diffusion kurtosis models in diffusion weighted imaging and the Gleason score of prostate cancer, and evaluate the application value and diagnostic efficiency in identifying low and high grade prostate cancer. Methods: A total of 50 patients with histologically confirmed as prostate cancer were examined from May 2015 to May 2016 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University using DWI performed at 3.0 T with an extended b-value range from 0 to 2 000 s/mm(2). Data were post-processed by whole tumor histogram analysis,the ROI was manually drown in DWI (b=1 000 s/mm(2)) step by step along the outline of cancer, and quantitative analysis were performed respectively by mono-exponential, bi-exponential and diffusion kurtosis models for quantification of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), diffusivity D, pseudo-diffusivity D(*), perfusion fraction f, diffusion coefficients by non-Gaussian distribution (D(k)) and kurtosis coefficient (K).Then the histogram analysis was performed to get the mean, median, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, skewness and kurtosis. The correlation between histogram analysis results of these quantitative parameters and Gleason score of prostate cancer were evaluated by Spearman correlation coefficient. The diagnostic performance of histogram analysis results of each quantitative parameters in identifying low (Gleason score≤6) and high (Gleason score>6) grade prostate cancer was performed by comparing the area under the ROC curve and the curve values. Results: The values of ADC, D and D(k) (mean, median, 25th, 75th) were negatively correlated with Gleason score of prostate cancer (r value was -0.388–0.624, P<0.05). The values of D (skewness and kurtosis) had a certain correlation with Gleason score of prostate cancer (r value were 0.413 and 0.402, P<0.05). The histogram analysis results of D(*) and f had no statistically significant correlation with Gleason score of prostate cancer (P>0.05). The values of K (mean, median, 25th, kurtosis) were positively correlated with Gleason score of prostate cancer (r value was 0.423-0.699,P<0.05). The diagnostic efficiency of histogram analysis results of these quantitative parameter values in identifying low and high grade prostate cancer showed that the ADC (median), D (25th), D(k) (mean) and K (25th) had a larger area under the curve, and were 0.844, 0.873, 0.815, and 0.919 respectively, the differences of area under the curve between any two of these parameters above were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The quantitative parameters of three diffusion models (ADC, D, D(k), K) in DWI are all related to the Gleason score of prostate cancer, but in the differential diagnosis of low and high grade prostate cancer, the diagnostic efficacy of mono-exponential model is sufficient. The more complex model such as bi-exponential and diffusion kurtosis may complement it in other ways.