SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

142

To evaluate the associations between adiposity measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) with decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and with all cause mortality.

132

Artificial intelligence is likely to perform several roles currently performed by humans, and the adoption of artificial intelligence-based medicine in gastroenterology practice is expected in the near future. Medical image-based diagnoses, such as pathology, radiology, and endoscopy, are expected to be the first in the medical field to be affected by artificial intelligence. A convolutional neural network, a kind of deep-learning method with multilayer perceptrons designed to use minimal preprocessing, was recently reported as being highly beneficial in the field of endoscopy, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and capsule endoscopy. A convolutional neural network-based diagnostic program was challenged to recognize anatomical locations in esophagogastroduodenoscopy images, Helicobacter pylori infection, and gastric cancer for esophagogastroduodenoscopy; to detect and classify colorectal polyps; to recognize celiac disease and hookworm; and to perform small intestine motility characterization of capsule endoscopy images. Artificial intelligence is expected to help endoscopists provide a more accurate diagnosis by automatically detecting and classifying lesions; therefore, it is essential that endoscopists focus on this novel technology. In this review, we describe the effects of artificial intelligence on gastroenterology with a special focus on automatic diagnosis, based on endoscopic findings.

132

Endoscopic transpapillary or transanastomotic pancreatic duct drainage (PD) is the mainstay of drainage in symptomatic pancreatic duct obstruction or leakage. However, transpapillary or transanastomotic PD can be technically difficult due to the tight stricture or surgically altered anatomy (SAA), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided PD (EUS-PD) is now increasingly used as an alternative technique. There are two approaches in EUS-PD: EUS-guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) and EUS-guided transmural drainage (EUS-TMD). In cases with normal anatomy, EUS-RV should be the first approach, whereas EUS-TMD can be selected in cases with SAA or duodenal obstruction. In our literature review, technical success and adverse event rates were 78.7% and 21.8%, respectively. The technical success rate of EUS-RV appeared lower than EUS-TMD due to the difficulty in guidewire passage. In future, development of dedicated devices and standardization of EUS-PD procedure are necessary.

22

The impact of diabetes on perioperative outcomes remains incompletely understood. Our purpose is to evaluate post-operative complications and mortality in patients with diabetes. Using the institutional and clinical databases of three university hospitals from 2009⁻2015, we conducted a matched study of 16,539 diabetes patients, aged >20 years, who underwent major surgery. Using a propensity score matching procedure, 16,539 surgical patients without diabetes who underwent surgery were also selected. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for post-operative complications and in-hospital mortality associated with diabetes. Patients with diabetes had a higher risk of postoperative septicemia (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01⁻1.74), necrotizing fasciitis (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.12⁻14.2), cellulitis (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.46⁻3.03), acute pyelonephritis (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.01⁻3.41), infectious arthritis (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.19⁻12.7), and in-hospital mortality (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.07⁻2.13) compared to people without diabetes. Previous admission for diabetes (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.85⁻2.93), HbA1c >8% (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.64⁻2.33) and fasting glucose >180 mg/dL (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.68⁻2.16) were predictors for post-operative adverse events. Diabetes patients who underwent surgery had higher risks of infectious complications and in-hospital mortality compared with patients without diabetes who underwent similar major surgeries.

22

Background/Study context: Posture and gait are complex sensorimotor functions affected by age. These difficulties are particularly apparent when performing cognitively demanding tasks. Characterizing the functional organization of brain networks involved in these associations remains a challenge because of the incompatibility of brain imagery techniques with gross body movements. The present study aimed at testing whether resting-state functional connectivity of sensorimotor networks is associated with posture and gait performance recorded offline, in young and older adults.

7

To assess the association between risk of venous thromboembolism and use of different types of hormone replacement therapy.

0

The conformations of topologically constrained double-folded ring polymers can be described as wrappings of randomly branched primitive trees. We extend previous work on the tree statistics under different (solvent) conditions to explore the conformational statistics of double-folded rings in the limit of tight wrapping. In particular, we relate the exponents characterizing the ring statistics to those describing the primitive trees and discuss the distribution functions [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for the spatial distance, [Formula: see text], and tree contour distance, L, between monomers as a function of their ring contour distance, [Formula: see text].

0

While the acoustic properties of solid foams have been abundantly characterized, sound propagation in liquid foams remains poorly understood. Recent studies have investigated the transmission of ultrasound through three-dimensional polydisperse liquid foams (Pierre et al., 2013, 2014, 2017). However, further progress requires to characterize the acoustic response of better-controlled foam structures. In this work, we study experimentally the transmission of ultrasounds through a single layer of monodisperse bubbles generated by microfluidics techniques. In such a material, we show that the sound velocity is only sensitive to the gas phase. Nevertheless, the structure of the liquid network has to be taken into account through a transfer parameter analogous to the one in a layer of porous material. Finally, we observe that the attenuation cannot be explained by thermal dissipation alone, but is compatible with viscous dissipation in the gas pores of the monolayer.

0

The search for efficient energy storage devices has recently led to the introduction of a fluid electrode material employing electrochemical flow capacitors (EFC). Unlike the classical solid electrode film containing capacitors, where the electrode material is fixed to the current collectors and capacitance is therefore limited with an active surface area of porous electrode, the flow electrodes offer new design opportunities which enable fully continuous charging/discharging processes as well as easily scalable systems. Here we describe the successful incorporation of the carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na) assisted carbonaceous suspension electrode in aqueous media for the electrochemical flow capacitor concept and demonstrate the electrochemical charge storage in flowable electrodes using a cation conductive membrane as separator in a double-pipe flow-electrode module. Experimental results were combined with computer simulations (FEM) to specify limiting processes EFC charging. The flow-electrode slurry is based on 0.1 M Na2SO4, 3 wt% CMC-Na and activated carbon powder suspended in water. During continuous operation of the system, the capacitance of the flow electrode reached to 0.3 F/L providing the energy and current densities of 7 mWh/kg and 56 mW/L, respectively. Additionally, we report a 70% round trip efficiency calculated during charging and discharging of the cell between 0 V and +0.75 V, while applying the current density of 1.6 mA/kg. The double-pipe flow-electrode module is easily expandable for transportation of large volumes of electrode material.

0

We calibrate basis sets and performance of two theoretical approaches to compute X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of condensed water by comparison to experiments on hexagonal ice Ih. We apply both the transition-potential half-core-hole approach and the complex polarization propagator using four different models of the crystal with increasing oxygen and proton disorder but find poor agreement with experiments. We note that there are large variations in experimental spectra depending on detection mode and how the ice samples were prepared, which leads us to critically investigate what structures were actually prepared and measured in each case. This is done by using a Monte Carlo-based fitting technique which fits the spectra based on a library of precomputed spectra and assigns weights to contributions from different model structures. These are then used to generate O-O and O-H radial distribution functions and tetrahedrality parameters associated with each of the measured spectra. We find that all spectra are associated with sharp peaks at the oxygen positions in the perfect lattice, but with significant disorder around these positions. We suggest that presently available XAS of hexagonal ice are not fully representative of the perfect crystalline lattice, but contain varying amounts of defects and possible contributions from low-density amorphous ice.