Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.


To investigate sex differences in risk factors for incident myocardial infarction (MI) and whether they vary with age.


To compare the rate of moderate to severe exacerbations between triple therapy and dual therapy or monotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).


Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10-4 M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α1-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca2+ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


We demonstrate acoustically triggered giant deformation of soft materials, and reveal the snap-through instability and bifurcation behavior of soft materials in nonlinear deformation regime in response to combined loading of mechanical and acoustic radiation forces. Our theoretical results suggest that acoustomechanical instability and bifurcation can be readily modulated by varying either the mechanical or acoustic force. This modulation functionality arises from the sensitivity of acoustic wave propagation to nonlinear deformation of soft material, particularly to ratio of initial geometrical size of soft material to acoustic wavelength in the material. The tunable acoustomechanical instability and bifurcation behavior of soft materials enables innovative design of programmable mechanical metamaterials. PACS numbers: 43.35.+d, 43.25.+y, 46.70.De, 61.41.+e.


To determine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate to fat ratio on total energy expenditure.


Quantitative and evidence-based approaches fail to capture “the whole person,” neglect the important contributions of nonquantitative variables to understanding behavior, and have limitations when assessing individuals who fall outside traditional normative groups. The emphasis on quantitative and evidence-based practices is one challenge facing the profession. The lack of consensual definitions for various domains of interest is a second challenge, because it hinders research, poses communication challenges, and impedes the accumulation of knowledge about human behavior. A third challenge the profession faces is an overemphasis on the biological basis of behavior. Finally, the forth challenge is the impact of technology on practice. Since the 1970s, there has been a rapid advance in our ability to investigate the brain, resulting in a significant increase of information about brain functioning, making it difficult for clinicians to stay abreast of changes in the field. Advances in technology have resulted in “assessments” being completed by nonpsychologists. To place these and related challenges in context, a brief review of the history of assessment and efforts to investigate brain functioning will be presented. It is suggested that failure to meet these challenges will contribute to the demise of the profession. Suggestions for meeting these challenges are offered.


The rise in food allergy has been described as the “second wave” of the allergy epidemic, with some developed countries reporting a prevalence of 10% of challenge proven food allergies. Recognition of the Allergic March has played a crucial role in identifying causality in allergic conditions, linking atopic dermatitis to food allergy and food allergy to other atopic disorders, thereby highlighting opportunities in prevention and the importance of early intervention. This publication will establish the value of weaving the less well understood, non-IgE mediated, food allergy into the Allergic March and mapping its progression through childhood and its associated co-morbidities. The proposed non-IgE mediated Allergic March highlights the concomitant presentation of gastrointestinal symptoms and atopic dermatitis as early presenting symptoms in confirmed non-IgE mediated allergies and the later development of atopic co-morbidities including asthma and allergic rhinitis, similar to the IgE-mediated Allergic March. This publication highlights recent observations of a link between non-IgE mediated food allergy in early childhood and functional gastrointestinal disorders in later life and also the reported occurrence of extra-intestinal manifestations at later ages. Although significant limitations exist in regards to the proposed evolution of the Allergic March model, the authors hope that this publication will influence the management of non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal allergies and inform future research and interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


To determine whether hospital admission is associated with potentially inappropriate prescribing among older primary care patients (aged ≥65 years) and whether such prescribing was more likely after hospital admission than before.


To assess the association between the use of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and seven serious adverse events of current concern.


To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about the Zika virus in both students and workers at the University of Veracruz, an online survey was conducted. The participants were divided into two groups: one according to sex, the other according to whether they were workers or students. Their answers were classified into knowledge, attitudes, and practices and they were rated as low, medium, and high. The results showed that knowledge about Zika prevailing among the university population is considered as medium in 79.4% of the study population. Most respondents know that the mosquito spreads the Zika virus (98.8%) and the clinical characteristics, while sexual transmission by the virus is little known (36.85%). Both the univariate analysis (OR (CI5) 0.227 (0.070⁻0.735), p = 0.013] and multivariate analysis (OR (CI95) 0.234 (0.071⁻778), p = 0.018] showed that belonging to the health sciences area is related to having a greater knowledge about Zika. Despite the existing knowledge, a low level of prevention practices prevails in the whole community (55%). A medium level of knowledge about Zika prevailed, while proper implementation of preventive measures for Zika is low, despite the fact that the state of Veracruz-the place where the University is located-is an endemic area.