SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

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RARS is a challenging clinical problem that impacts many patients. This article seeks to systematically review the literature on RARS management.

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Palliative care (PC) clinicians treat seriously ill patients who are at increased risk for compromised decision-making capacity (DMC). These patients face profound and complex questions about which treatments to accept and which to decline. PC clinicians, therefore, have the especially difficult task of performing thorough, fair, and accurate DMC assessments in the face of the complex effects of terminal illness, which may be complicated by fluctuating acute medical conditions, mental illness, or cognitive dysfunction. This study, written by a team of clinicians with expertise in PC, ethics, psychiatry, pediatrics, and geriatrics, aims to provide expert guidance to PC clinicians on best practice for complex DMC assessment.

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Light-powered micromotors have drawn enormous attention because of their potential applications in cargo delivery, environmental monitoring, and noninvasive surgery. However, the existing micromotors still suffer from some challenges, including slow speed, poor controllability, single locomotion mode, and no deformation during movement. Herein, we employ a combined electrospinning with brushing of Chinese ink to simply fabricate a light-responsive gradient-structured poly(vinyl alcohol)/carbon (PVA/carbon) composite motor. Because of the surface deposition and ultrahigh loading amount of carbon nanoparticles (ca. 43%), the motor exhibits rapid (39 mm/s), direction-controlled, and multimodal locomotion (vertical movement, horizontal motion, rotation) under light irradiation. Simultaneously, gradient alignment structure of the PVA nanofibrous matrix endows the motor with controllable and reversible deformation during locomotion. We finally demonstrate the potential applications of the motors in leakage monitoring, object salvage, smart access, and intelligent assembly. The present work will inspire the design of novel photosensitive motors for applications in various fields, such as microrobots, environmental monitoring, and biomedicine.

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Manufacturers of cardiac implantable electronic devices have incorporated automatic features to allow for remote monitoring, improve device longevity, and additional safety. Algorithms to automatically measure capture threshold and adjust output to preserve battery life are one such feature. Automatic features may occasionally result in unexpected or undesirable clinical outcomes. We report on a patient who developed ventricular tachycardia inadvertently induced by the AutoCapture. feature of an Abbott/St. Jude Medical (SJM) pacemaker.

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This commentary highlights the research entitled: Transplantation of platelet-derived mitochondria alleviates cognitive impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction in db/db mice, presented by Ma et al. appearing in Clinical Science (2020) 134(16), https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20200530. The authors evaluated the effect of xenograft transplantation of mitochondria isolated from peripheral blood platelets in an animal model of type II diabetes and evaluated the effects of transplantation on diabetes-associated cognitive impairment (DACI). They showed cognitive and molecular improvement in response to mitochondrial transplantation to db/db mice brains. Besides, they showed better internalization of the transplanted mitochondria into the diseased animals' hippocampal cells compared with the healthy normal control.

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Rhamnose is an important 6-deoxy sugar present in many natural products, glycoproteins, and structural polysaccharides. Whilst predominantly found as the l-enantiomer, instances of d-rhamnose are also found in nature, particularly in the Pseudomonads bacteria. Interestingly, rhamnose is notably absent from humans and other animals, which poses unique opportunities for drug discovery targeted towards rhamnose utilizing enzymes from pathogenic bacteria. Whilst the biosynthesis of nucleotide-activated rhamnose (NDP-rhamnose) is well studied, the study of rhamnosyltransferases that synthesize rhamnose-containing glycoconjugates is the current focus amongst the scientific community. In this review, we describe where rhamnose has been found in nature, as well as what is known about TDP-β-l-rhamnose, UDP-β-l-rhamnose, and GDP-α-d-rhamnose biosynthesis. We then focus on examples of rhamnosyltransferases that have been characterized using both in vivo and in vitro approaches from plants and bacteria, highlighting enzymes where 3D structures have been obtained. The ongoing study of rhamnose and rhamnosyltransferases, in particular in pathogenic organisms, is important to inform future drug discovery projects and vaccine development.

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At the surface of many cells is a compendium of glycoconjugates that form an interface between the cell and its surroundings; the glycocalyx. The glycocalyx serves several functions that have captivated the interest of many groups. Given its privileged residence, this meshwork of sugar-rich biomolecules is poised to transmit signals across the cellular membrane, facilitating communication with the extracellular matrix and mediating important signalling cascades. As a product of the glycan biosynthetic machinery, the glycocalyx can serve as a partial mirror that reports on the cell’s glycosylation status. The glycocalyx can also serve as an information-rich barrier, withholding the entry of pathogens into the underlying plasma membrane through glycan-rich molecular messages. In this review, we provide an overview of the different approaches devised to engineer glycans at the cell surface, highlighting considerations of each, as well as illuminating the grand challenges that face the next era of ‘glyco-engineers’. While we have learned much from these techniques, it is evident that much is left to be unearthed.

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Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, several health care programs intended to provide telemedicine services have been introduced in Libya. Many physicians have used these services to provide care and advice to their patients remotely.

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Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) is one of the most frequently occurring primary malignant liver tumors and seriously harms people’s health in the world. Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1-like (MTHFD1L) has been shown to be associated with colon cancer cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. In the present study, a total of 370 LIHC and 51 normal samples data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis showed that MTHFD1L is highly expressed in liver tumors. Correlation analysis suggested the differences of vital status between high- and low-expression MTHFD1L groups of LIHC. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression were performed to identify the relationship between clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS). In addition, to explore whether MTHFD1L has an effect on the immune infiltration of LIHC. The correlation between MTHFD1L expression and 24 immune cells were analyzed by ImmuneCellAI database. Furthermore, we combined three databases CIBERSORT, TIMER and ImmuneCellAI to do a comprehensive validation and determined that dendritic cells (DCs) resting, macrophage M0 and macrophage M2 closely related to the expression of MTHFD1L. The results showed that MTHFD1L was a potential prognostic biomarker for LIHC, and could help to elucidate that how the immune microenvironment promotes liver cancer development.

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The incidence of cocaine abuse is increasing especially in the U.K. where the rates are among the highest in Europe. In addition to its role as a psychostimulant, cocaine has profound effect on brain metabolism, impacting glycolysis and impairing oxidative phosphorylation. Cocaine exposure alters metabolic gene expression and protein networks in brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens, the principal nuclei of the brain reward system. Here, we focus on how cocaine impacts mitochondrial function, in particular through alterations in electron transport chain function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress (OS), mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. Finally, we describe the impact of cocaine on brain energy metabolism in the developing brain following prenatal exposure. The plethora of mitochondrial functions altered following cocaine exposure suggest that therapies maintaining mitochondrial functional integrity may hold promise in mitigating cocaine pathology and addiction.