SciCombinator

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The human genome is not a linear structure, but a three-dimensional structure through complex folding and assembly. Chromosome structure capture technology can detect the three-dimensional construction of chromatin. Hi-C sequencing data of various tumors indicate that the chromatin topology associated domains changed during tumor progression and is related to copy number variation. In addition, transformation of the genomic compartment is related to gene expression. However, current researches on three-dimensional structures of tumoral chromatin are still in the stage of exploration, and some conclusions are too superficial to be applied to the clinic immediately, which requires further study.

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Safe management of the second stage of labor is important. Wait for spontaneous delivery, operative vaginal deliveries and second stage cesarean sections are all options when prolonged second stage occurs. The important question is which option to choose. Fetal head station and fetal head position are used to decide mode of delivery, this has traditionally been decided by performing a digital vaginal examination. Studies have shown that theses clinical examinations of both fetal head station and position are unreliable and that ultrasound might be better option. The International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG) published in 2018 guidelines on intrapartum ultrasound and recommends that ultrasound is performed for ascertainment of fetal head position and station before considering or performing an instrumental vaginal delivery for slow progress or arrested labor in the second stage. The determination of the fetal head position, fetal head station and the movement of the fetal head can easily be determined with the help of ultrasound and can help the clinicians in making the right decision on how to proceed when prolonged second stage of labor is diagnosed.

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Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are one of the most common causes of anal incontinence (AI) in women of reproductive age and can have a significant impact on quality of life. However, many women do not report symptoms to their physicians because of embarrassment and shame. Therefore, prevention and diagnosis of the tear is essential. Diagnostic strategies have evolved considerably in recent years, with an increase in prevalence of OASIS as a consequence. The use of 3D endoanal (3D-EAUS) and 4D transperineal ultrasound (4D-TPUS), in addition to standard clinical examination have enhanced the detection of OASIS. Once identified, adequate repair by a skilled practitioner and optimal postpartum management should be ensured in order to reduce the risk of anal incontinence. This review presents the available evidence on strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and management of OASIS.

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Cervical cancer is currently one of the most common cancers afflicting the female population worldwide and in industrialized countries the presence of screening and a specific diagnostic and therapeutic process has favored early diagnosis of cervical cancer. In literature have found that reducing the radicality on the parametria in early cervical cancer (ECC), reduces complications without impacting oncological outcomes, but the data in the literature are not yet clear.

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The automatic analysis of fetal ECG in labor has been introduced as an adjunct of traditional cardiotocography with the aim to improve the identification of fetuses with intrapartum hypoxia. Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have produced conflicting results, with the most recent randomized controlled trial not demonstrating any improvement in either neonatal outcomes or reduction in operative birth rates. The objective of this review article is to present the state of art about the use of STAN technology in labor ward.

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COVID-19 was declared pandemic due to the rapid increase of cases around the world, including the number of pregnant women. Data about vertical transmission of Covid-19 are still limited and controversial: in most cases, although a positive mother, the virus could not be isolated in amniotic fluid, cord blood, breast milk or neonatal throat swab in these patients. No data have been published about possible intrauterine sonographic signs of infection.

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Cervical stenosis is defined as an adhesion process of variable degree, producing narrowing, distortion, or complete obliteration of the cervix. Several techniques have been defined to access to the uterine cavity and nowadays hysteroscopy seems to be the best option. In this manuscript, we review all the hysteroscopic modalities to overcome a cervical stenosis and access to the uterine cavity.

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Giant Zeeman splitting and zero-field splitting (ZFS) are observed in 2D nanosheets that have monolayers of atomic thickness. In this study, single-crystalline CdSe(ethylenediamine)0.5 and Mn2+-doped nanosheets are synthesized via a solvothermal process. Tunable amounts of Mn2+(0.5-8.0%) are introduced, resulting in lattice contraction as well as phosphorescence from five unpaired electrons. The exciton dynamics are dominated by spin-related electronic transitions (4T1 → 6A1) with long lifetimes (20.5, 132, and 295 μs). Temperature-varied EPR spectroscopy with spectral simulation reveals large ZFS (D = 3850 MHz) due to axial distortion of substituted Mn2+ (S = 5/2). In the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements, we observed giant Zeeman splitting with large effective g values (up to 231 ± 21), which implies huge sp-d exchange interactions in 2D monolayer regimes, leading to diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) materials.

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An in vitro effect of (+)MK-801 (dizocilpine), an inhibitor of the glutamate/NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, on the Aβ[1-42] and Aβ[1-40] peptides is described and compared to that of memantine. Memantine has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of mild-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Both compounds accelerated the formation of a β-sheet structure by Aβ[1-42], (+)MK-801 more rapidly than memantine, as observed in a thioflavin T fluorescence assay. The acceleration was followed by a decrease in the fluorescence signal that was not observed when the ligand was absent. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the soluble peptides in the presence and absence of (+)MK-801 demonstrated that the monomeric form did not bind (+)MK-801 and that in the presence of (+)MK-801 the concentration of the monomeric form progressively decreased. Small angle X-ray scattering confirmed that the presence of (+)MK-801 resulted in a more rapid and characteristic transition to an insoluble form. These results suggest that (+)MK-801 and memantine accelerate the transition of Aβ[1-42] and Aβ[1-40] to ThT-negative insoluble forms.

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Targeted drug delivery and controlled drug release can be obtained using specifically designed polymers as carriers. Due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability and especially the lack of an immune response, materials made of spider silk proteins are promising candidates for use in such applications. Particles made of recombinant spider silk proteins have previously been shown to be suitable drug and gene carriers as they could readily be loaded with various drug substances or biologicals, and subsequent release was observed over a defined period of time. However, the respective substances were bound non-covalently via hydrophobic or charge-charge interactions, and hence, the release of loaded substances could not be spatio-temporally controlled. Here, we present a setup of chemically modified recombinant spider silk protein eADF4 and variants thereof, combining their well-established biocompatible properties with covalent drug binding and triggered release upon changes in the pH or redox state, respectively. The usefulness of the spider silk platform technology was shown with model substances and cytostatic drugs bound to spider silk particles or films via a pH-labile hydrazine linker as one option, and the drugs could be released from the spider silk carriers upon acidification of the environment as seen, e.g., in tumorous tissues or endo/lysosomes. Sulfhydryl-bearing spider silk variants allowed model substance release if exposed to intracellular GSH (glutathione) levels as a second coupling option. The combination of non-immunogenic, nontoxic spider silk materials as drug carriers with precisely triggerable release chemistry presents a platform technology for a wide range of applications.