SciCombinator

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Introduction Firefighters represent an important population for understanding the consequences of exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Hypothesis/Problem The researchers were interested in the effects of pre-employment disaster exposure on firefighter recruits' depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the first three years of fire service and hypothesized that: (1) disaster-exposed firefighters would have greater depression and PTSD symptoms than non-exposed overall; and (2) depression and PTSD symptoms would worsen over years in fire service in exposed firefighters, but not in their unexposed counterparts.

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The effect of dietary digestible protein (DP) and/or digestible energy (DE) levels on lysine (Lys) requirements, Lys utilisation efficiency and voluntary feed intake (VFI) were studied in rainbow trout fry when Lys was the first limiting indispensable amino acid or in excess in the diet. Two trials were conducted at 11·6°C with eighty-one experimental diets, containing 280 g DP/kg DM (low protein (LP), trial 1), 600 g DP/kg DM (high protein (HP), trial 1) or 440 g DP/kg DM (medium protein (MP), trial 2), 17 MJ DE/kg (low energy (LE)), 19·5 MJ DE/kg (medium energy (ME)) or 22 MJ DE/kg (high energy (HE)), and nine Lys levels from deeply deficient to large excess (2·3-36 g/kg DM). Each diet was given to apparent satiety to one group of fifty fry (initial body weight 0·85 g) for 24 (MP diets, trial 2) or 30 (LP and HP diets, trial 1) feeding days. Based on N gain data fitted with the broken-line model, the relative Lys requirement was significantly different with the dietary DP level, from 13·3-15·7 to 22·9-26·5 g/kg DM for LP and HP diets, respectively, but did not significantly change with the DE level for a same protein level. The Lys utilisation efficiency for protein growth above maintenance was constant across diets, suggesting no effect of either dietary DE or DP levels. In Lys excess, the VFI was markedly decreased by the DP level but not by the extra DE supply. Our results suggest that the relative Lys need is best expressed in terms of percentage of protein content for optimum fish feed formulation, at least in rainbow trout fry.

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Some fire ants of the genus Solenopsis have become invasive species in the southern United States displacing native species by competition. Although the displacement pattern seems clear, the mechanisms underlying competitive advantage remain unclear. The ability of ant workers to produce relatively larger amount of alarm pheromone may correspond to relative greater fitness among sympatric fire ant species. Here we report on quantitative intra-specific (i.e. inter-caste) and inter-specific differences of alarm pheromone component, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine (2E36DMP), for several fire ant species. The alarm pheromone component was extracted by soaking ants in hexane for 48 h and subsequently quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at single ion monitoring mode. Solenopsis invicta workers had more 2E36DMP than male or female alates by relative weight; individual workers, however, contained significantly less pyrazine. We thus believe that alarm pheromones may serve additional roles in alates. Workers of Solenopsis richteri, S. invicta, and hybrid (S. richteri × S. invicta) had significantly more 2E36DMP than a native fire ant species, Solenopsis geminata. The hybrid fire ant had significantly less 2E36DMP than the two parent species, S. richteri and S. invicta. It seems likely that higher alarm pheromone content may have favored invasion success of exotic fire ants over native species. We discuss the potential role of inter-specific variation in pyrazine content for the relationship between the observed shifts in the spatial distributions of the three exotic fire ant species in southern United States and the displacement of native fire ant species.

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Artemether (ATM) cardiotoxicity, its short half-life and low oral bioavailability are the major limiting factors for its use to treat malaria. The purposes of this work were to study free-ATM and ATM-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapules (ATM-NC) cardiotoxicity and oral efficacy on Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. ATM-NC was obtained by interfacial polymer deposition and ATM was associated with polymeric NC oily core. For cardiotoxicity evaluation, male black C57BL6 uninfected or P. berghei-infected mice received, by oral route twice daily/4 days, vehicle (sorbitol/carboxymethylcellulose), blank-NC, free-ATM or ATM-NC at doses 40, 80 or 120 mg kg-1. Electrocardiogram (ECG) lead II signal was obtained before and after treatment. For ATM efficacy evaluation, female P. berghei-infected mice were treated the same way. ATM-NC improved antimalarial in vivo efficacy and reduced mice mortality. Free-ATM induced significantly QT and QTc intervals prolongation. ATM-NC (120 mg kg-1) given to uninfected mice reduced QT and QTc intervals prolongation 34 and 30%, respectively, compared with free-ATM. ATM-NC given to infected mice also reduced QT and QTc intervals prolongation, 28 and 27%, respectively. For the first time, the study showed a nanocarrier reducing cardiotoxicity of ATM given by oral route and it was more effective against P. berghei than free-ATM as monotherapy.

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Introduction Firefighting is an important profession during disasters. Firefighters are on duty for many vital functions, including fire extinguishing, search and rescue work, and evacuation of disaster victims to a safe zone. In case of a disaster situation, it is vital to have willing personnel to work in disasters. In the literature, type of disaster, individual demographic factors, family factors, and workplace factors have been identified as factors that influence health care personnel’s willingness to work during a disaster. However, little is known about firefighters and firefighter candidates' willingness to work in a disaster. Hypothesis/Problem This study was aimed to identify the willingness of civil defense and firefighting program students to work in different disasters after graduation and the factors associated with their willingness.

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Production studies show connective acquisition by age 3;0, but comprehension studies show errors until 9;0 or older. To further investigate this gap, two comprehension tasks were carried out with 78 Dutch children between the ages of 7;0 and 10;1, testing contrastive maar ‘but’ and causal want ‘because’ connectives for comparison. An existing context choice task and a task that tested children’s ability to interpret pronouns dependent on the connective were used. Children did well on the context choice task for want ‘because’, but performed far below chance with maar ‘but’. In the pronoun interpretation task the youngest children performed at or near chance with both connectives, but show gradual improvement with age. Task complexity may partially explain the results but in general, they are consistent with previous experiments showing contrastive connective comprehension is acquired very late compared to their correct production. Further, the pronoun interpretation task may give a more accurate picture of understanding.

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The present study aimed to investigate disordered eating (DE) among Sami compared with non-Sami residing in northern Norway.

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The aim of this study was to determine and compare cardiovascular risks by assessing arterial stiffness in children with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension.

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Introduction Historically, the quality and performance of prehospital emergency care (PEC) has been assessed largely based on surrogate, non-clinical endpoints such as response time intervals or other crude measures of care (eg, stakeholder satisfaction). However, advances in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems and services world-wide have seen their scope and reach continue to expand. This has dictated that novel measures of performance be implemented to compliment this growth. Significant progress has been made in this area, largely in the form of the development of evidence-informed quality indicators (QIs) of PEC. Problem Quality indicators represent an increasingly popular component of health care quality and performance measurement. However, little is known about the development of QIs in the PEC environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the development and characteristics of PEC-specific QIs in the literature.

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Introduction Early recognition of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can increase the patient’s likelihood of survival. As the first point of contact for patients accessing medical care through emergency services, emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) represent the earliest potential identification point for AMIs. The objective of the study was to determine how AMI cases were coded and prioritized at the dispatch point, and also to describe the distribution of these cases by patient age and gender. Hypothesis/Problem No studies currently exist that describe the EMD’s ability to correctly triage AMIs into Advanced Life Support (ALS) response tiers.