SciCombinator

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Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) can cause invasive diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, or sepsis. Typeable Hi includes six serotypes (a through f), each expressing a unique capsular polysaccharide. The capsule, encoded by the genes within the capsule locus, is a major virulence factor of typeable Hi. Non-typeable (NTHi) does not express capsule and is associated with invasive and non-invasive diseases.

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Early and unprotected sex with multiple partners among adolescents carries a high risk of acquiring HIV infections, other sexually transmitted infections as well as high rates of teenage pregnancy. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has a higher burden of HIV/AIDS: the leading cause of deaths among adolescents. We estimated the prevalence and examined the correlates of sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents of SSA. The purpose is to inform the public health programs dedicated to tackling the burden of HIV/AIDS.

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Icotinib has been widely used in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and have significantly enhanced the overall survival rate of NSCLC patients. However, acquired drug resistance limits its clinical efficacy. Tumor cell-derived exosomes have been reported to participate in various biological processes, including tumor invasion, metastasis and drug resistance.

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Growing evidence suggests that prolonged uninterrupted sitting can be detrimental to health. Much sedentary behaviour research is reliant on self-reports of sitting time, and sitting-reduction interventions often focus on reducing motivation to sit. These approaches assume that people are consciously aware of their sitting time. Drawing on Action Identification Theory, this paper argues that people rarely identify the act of sitting as ‘sitting’ per se, and instead view it as an incidental component of more meaningful and purposeful typically-seated activities.

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Limited aortic annulus exposure during minimal invasive aortic valve replacement (mini-AVR) proves to be challenging and contributes to procedure complexity, resulting in longer procedure times. New innovations like sutureless valves have been introduced to reduce procedure complexity. Additionally, preoperative imaging could also contribute to reducing procedure times. Therefore, we hypothesize that Computed Tomography (CT)-image based measurements are associated with mini-AVR complexity.

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Recent experimental research has suggested that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) may reduce pain through modulation of the ascending pain signals and/or the central pain-regulating mechanisms. People with persistent neck pain (NP) have also been found to have disturbances in autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation. A common way to study the ANS is to measure heart rate variability (HRV). It is not known whether deviations in HRV are related to changes in pain perception or to the treatment response to SMT. Commonly, an individual in pain will experience pain reduction when exposed to a second pain stimulus, a mechanism known as conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Patients with persistent pain have been found to have a reduced CPM reaction. It is not known whether this is predictive of treatment response to SMT. The aim of the study is to examine the effects of SMT on HRV and pain. Further, a secondary aim is to test whether a CPM test can be used to predict treatment response in a population of patients with recurrent and persistent NP.

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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by environmental agonists and dietary tryptophan metabolites for the immune response and cell cycle regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that AHR activation after acute stroke may play a role in brain ischemic injury. However, whether AHR activation alters poststroke astrogliosis and neurogenesis remains unknown.

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Vigilant management of women with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is necessary in cancer screening programs. To this end, we evaluated the performance of S5 (targeting DNA methylation in HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, and human gene EPB41L3) to predict cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) in a sample of hrHPV-infected women referred to colposcopy in the FRIDA Study, a large screening trial in Mexico. A nested case-control sample with women referred to colposcopy either by atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or higher (ASCUS+) in cytology and/or positive for HPV types 16 or 18 was tested by S5. Seventy-nine cases of CIN2+ were age-matched to 237 controls without a diagnosis of CIN2+ (

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Respiratory pathology is a major driver of mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU), even in the absence of a primary respiratory diagnosis. Prior work has demonstrated that a visual scoring system applied to chest radiographs (CXR) is associated with adverse outcomes in ICU patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesized that a simple, semi-quantitative CXR score would be associated with clinical outcomes for the general ICU population, regardless of underlying diagnosis.

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The epigenetic machinery is frequently altered in acute myeloid leukemia. Focusing on cytogenetically normal (CN) AML, we previously described an abnormal H3K27me3 enrichment covering 70 kb on the HIST1 cluster (6.p22) in CN-AML patient blasts. Here, we further investigate the molecular, functional, and prognosis significance of this epigenetic alteration named H3K27me3 HIST1 in NPM1-mutated (NPM1mut) CN-AML.