SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

 

0

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a multipurpose crop that can be harvested as grain or cut prior to maturity for use as forage. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of barley that reduces quality of grain. FHB can also result in the accumulation of mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Breeding FHB resistant varieties has been a long-term goal of many barley-producing countries, including Canada. While the genetic basis of DON detoxification via production of less-phytotoxic conjugates such as DON-3-glucoside (DON3G) is well documented in barley, little information exists in reference to varietal response. Over two years, 16 spring, two-row barley genotypes, of importance to western Canadian barley breeding programs, were grown as short-rows and inoculated following spike emergence with a Fusarium graminearum conidia suspension. Half of the plots were harvested at soft dough stage and then dissected into rachis and grain components, whereas the remainder was harvested at maturity. Multiple Fusarium-mycotoxins were assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mycotoxin content was elevated at the earlier harvest point, especially in the rachis tissue. DON3G constituted a significant percentage (26%) of total trichothecene content and thus its co-occurrence with DON should be considered by barley industries. DON3G was highly correlated with DON and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON). The ratio of D3G/DON exhibited consistency across genotypes, however more-resistant genotypes were characterized by a higher ratio at the soft-dough stage followed by a decrease at maturity. Plant breeding practices that use DON content as a biomarker for resistance would likely result in the development of barley cultivars with lower total DON-like compounds.

0

The invasive Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), expanded its range from Mexico to South Texas in the early 1980s. By 2008 the pest had moved into sugarcane- and rice-growing areas of East Texas and Louisiana, and by 2012 it was reported on noncrop host plants in Florida. Efforts to suppress E. loftini in United States sugarcane with chemicals and biological control agents were unsuccessful, so both tactics were discontinued, and E. loftini infestation of sugarcane has continued unchecked. During the last 15 years, however, research has focused on the pest’s ecology, improved insecticides and scouting methods, the identification of sugarcane resistance mechanisms, and new cultural tactics. A surveillance technique was developed that indicates when larvae are most vulnerable to insecticide sprays. Currently, registered insecticides for E. loftini control are not widely applied, although some show promise, including an insect growth regulator. A number of potentially useful cultural practices are available, including plowing under fallow stubble, judicious use of fertilizer, adequate irrigation, avoiding proximity to E. loftini-susceptible maize cultivars, and enhancement of natural enemy populations. Demonstrated and potentially useful sugarcane resistance mechanisms involve physiochemical attributes, physical characteristics, and transgenic cultivars.

0

Nurses are at risk of having burnout due to workload and job stress-studies have reported that chronic stress is associated with metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to assess the association between burnout and metabolic syndrome in a sample of female nurses. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study from 2016 to 2018 in a tertiary hospital in Mexico City. All nurses that work in the hospital were invited to participate. Information pertaining to sociodemographic (age, education level), work (labor seniority, service area, shift work), anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, blood pressure) and biochemical (glucose, serum lipids) variables were collected. Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory test, and metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. A total of 168 nurses participated with a median age of 44 years. The prevalence of burnout and metabolic syndrome was 19.6% and 38.7%, respectively. There was no association between burnout and metabolic syndrome (p = 0.373). However, associations of emotional exhaustion (aOR: 14.95; 95% CI: 1.5-148.7), personal accomplishment (aOR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.01-0.99), and night shift (aOR: 12.39; 95% CI: 1.02-150.5) with increased waist circumference were found. Strategies are needed to prevent burnout and metabolic syndrome in nurses, especially in those who work at night shift.

0

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadliest gynecological malignancies. Topotecan remains an essential tool in second-line therapy; even so, most patients develop resistance within a short period of time. We aimed to identify biomarkers of topotecan resistance by using gene expression signatures derived from patient specimens at surgery and available subsequent responses to therapy. Gene expression was collected for 1436 patients and 10,103 genes. Based on disease progression, patients were categorized as responders/nonresponders depending on their progression free survival (PFS) state at 9, 12, 15 and 18 months after surgery. For each gene, the median expression was compared between responders and nonresponders for two treatment regimens (chemotherapy including/excluding topotecan) with Mann-Whitney U test at each of the four different PFS cutoffs. Statistical significance was accepted in the case of p < 0.05 with a fold change (FC) ≥ 1.44. Four genes (EPB41L2, HLA-DQB1, LTF and SFRP1) were consistently overexpressed across multiple PFS cutoff times in initial tumor samples of patients with disease progression following topotecan treatment. A common theme linked to topotecan resistance was altered immune modulation. Genes associated with disease progression after systemic chemotherapy emphasize the role of the initial organization of the tumor microenvironment in therapy resistance. Our results uncover biomarkers with potential utility for patient stratification.

0

Green spaces are known to improve health and wellbeing via several mechanisms, such as by reducing stress and facilitating physical activity. However, little is known about the impact of the smaller green spaces typically found in urban environments on wellbeing, especially for older adults. This study investigated experiences in adults (5 males and 10 females) aged 60 years and over of small urban green spaces in a large UK city. Fifteen older adults were interviewed using semi-structured walk-along interviews and photo elicitation methods in Old Moat, Greater Manchester. Twelve of the participants lived in Old Moat at the time of the study, and the remaining three participants previously lived in Old Moat and were frequent visitors. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using Thematic Analysis. Smaller urban green spaces were perceived differently to large green spaces, and participants were more likely to use larger green spaces such as parks. The smaller green spaces were perceived as belonging to other people, which discouraged the older adults from using them. The older adults also emphasized the importance of taking care of small urban green spaces and preventing them from becoming overgrown. Urban planners should consider these factors, since they indicate that the size and type of urban green spaces may influence whether they improve health and wellbeing. Further research should investigate in more detail which types of urban green space are most conducive to facilitating physical activity and improving wellbeing.

0

Insulin resistance is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of medical disorders that together increase the chance of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In turn, type 2 diabetes may cause complications such as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Obesity is a major risk factor for developing systemic insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle is the first tissue in susceptible individuals to lose its insulin responsiveness. Interestingly, lean individuals are not immune to insulin resistance either. Non-obese, non-diabetic subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD), for example, exhibit insulin resistance at the very onset of CKD, even before clinical symptoms of renal failure are clear. This uraemic insulin resistance contributes to the muscle weakness and muscle wasting that many CKD patients face, especially during the later stages of the disease. Bioenergetic failure has been associated with the loss of skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in obesity and uraemia, as well as in the development of kidney disease and its sarcopenic complications. In this mini review, we evaluate how mitochondrial activity of different renal cell types changes during DKD progression, and discuss the controversial role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in DKD. We also compare the involvement of skeletal muscle mitochondria in uraemic and obesity-related muscle insulin resistance.

0

Influenza D virus (IDV) has first been identified in 2011 in the USA and was shown to mainly circulate in cattle. While IDV is associated with mild respiratory signs, its prevalence is still unknown. In the present study we show that IDV has been circulating throughout France in cattle and small ruminants, with 47.2% and 1.5% seropositivity, respectively. The high prevalence and moderate pathogenicity of IDV in cattle suggest that it may play an initiating role in the bovine respiratory disease complex.

0

Inflammatory bowel diseases increase the risk of colorectal cancer and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Tenascin-C, a matricellular protein, is highly expressed in inflammatory bowel diseases, especially colorectal cancer. However, the role of tenascin-C in the development of CAC is not yet fully understood. We previously showed that a peptide derived from tenascin-C, peptide TNIIIA2, induces potent and sustained activation of β1-integrin. Moreover, we recently reported that peptide TNIIIA2 promotes invasion and metastasis in colon cancer cells. Here, we show the pathological relevance of TNIIIA2-related functional site for the development of CAC. First, expression of the TNIIIA2-containing TNC peptides/fragments was detected in dysplastic lesions of an azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) mouse model. In vitro experiments demonstrated that conditioned medium from peptide TNIIIA2-stimulated human WI-38 fibroblasts induced malignant transformation in preneoplastic epithelial HaCaT cells. Indeed, these pro-proliferative effects stimulated by peptide TNIIIA2 were abrogated by peptide FNIII14, which has the ability to inactivate β1-integrin. Importantly, peptide FNIII14 was capable of suppressing polyp formation in the AOM/DSS model. Therefore, tenascin-C-derived peptide TNIIIA2 may contribute to the formation of CAC via activation of stromal fibroblasts based on β1-integrin activation. Peptide FNIII14 could represent a potential prophylactic treatment for CAC.

0

This paper presents a simple and economical method for preparing durable anti-static functionalized inkjet prints by using P[St-BA-F6]-novel antistatic agents synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of styrene, butyl acrylate, and allyl alcohol polyether F6. The P[St-BA-F6] was characterized by gel permeation chromatography and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. One bath pretreatment solution containing P[St-BA-F6] and pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PETA) were applied to polyester fabrics before inkjet printing, in order to enhance the color yield and the anti-static properties. The pretreatment conditions, including the concentrations of P[St-BA-F6], curing temperature, and time, were optimized based on inkjet printed polyester fabrics. SEM (scanning electron microscope), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffractometer), TG (thermogravimetric), and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) examined the fabrics. The results showed that the treated PET fabrics exhibited good applied performances, such as higher color yield, better dry rubbing fastness, lower electrostatic voltage, and durable anti-static properties, even after washing 10 times. These results can be attributed to alcohol polythene group (F6) and allyl group (PETA). PETA can be cross-linked with P[St-BA-F6] and PET fiber. The thermal stability of the treated fabric was lower than that of the untreated fabric, owing to the presence of resin film on the fiber surface.

0

Healthy microbiota is a critical mediator in maintaining health and it is supposed that dysbiosis could have a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Evidence supports the hypothesis that maternal dysbiosis could act as a trigger for preterm birth; aberrant colonization of preterm infant gut might have a role in feeding intolerance and pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis. Despite several clinical trials and meta-analyses, it is still not clear if modulation of maternal and neonatal microbiota with probiotic supplementation decreases the risk of preterm birth and its complications.