SciCombinator

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Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major determinant of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Altered miRNAs levels lead to serious chronic diseases such as diabetes. We aimed to measure two miRNA 126 and 192 expression levels in DN and their connection with albuminuria levels.

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The enzyme L-DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), also called aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the biosynthesis of dopamine, serotonin, and trace amines. Its deficiency or perturbations in expression result in severe motor dysfunction or a range of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. A DDC substrate, L-DOPA, combined with an inhibitor of the enzyme is still the most effective treatment for symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. In this review, we provide an update regarding the structures, functions, and inhibitors of DDC, particularly with regards to the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. This information will provide insight into pharmacological treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

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Chronic inflammatory processes within the central nervous system (CNS) are in part responsible for the development of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. These processes are associated with, among other things, the increased and disturbed activation of microglia and the elevated production of proinflammatory factors. Recent studies have indicated that the disruption of the process of resolution of inflammation (RoI) may be the cause of CNS disorders. It has been shown that the RoI is regulated by endogenous molecules called specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), which interact with specific membrane receptors. Some SPMs activate formyl peptide receptors (FPRs), which belong to the family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors take part not only in the proinflammatory response but also in the resolution of inflammation process. Therefore, the activation of FPRs might have complex consequences. This review discusses the potential role of FPRs, and in particular the role of FPR2 subtype, in the brain under physiological and pathological conditions and their involvement in processes underlying neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders as well as ischemia, the pathogenesis of which involves the dysfunction of inflammatory processes.

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Antiretroviral drugs to HIV-1 (ARV) are divided into classes: Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs); Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs); Protease Inhibitors (PIs); Integrase Inhibitors (INIs); fusion inhibitors and entry Inhibitors. The occurrence of mutations creating resistance to antiretroviral drugs used in HIV treatment occurs in a considerable proportion and has accumulated over its long period of therapy.

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To block the metastatic and angiogenic pathways during the tumor progression arouses considerable pharmacological interests in the development of anticancer drugs.

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Chronic heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome with typical symptoms that can occur at rest or on effort. It requires patients to manage their life style with their disease and when to notify their provider. The study aimed to identify Medication adherence and associated factors among chronic heart failure clients on follow up Oromia region, West Ethiopia, 2017.

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Recent findings have shown that in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, elevated troponin is associated with increased mortality. However, due to concerns of cerebral hypoperfusion and hemorrhagic transformation, current practice has been slow to apply proven cardiac therapies to these patients. This study aims to determine this rate of utilization.

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Microfluidics is increasing in interest as a superior technique for the synthesis of nanoparticles, particularly for their use in nanomedicine. In microfluidics, small volumes of liquid reagents are rapidly mixed in a microchannel in a highly controlled manner to form nanoparticles with tunable and reproducible structure that can be tailored for drug delivery. Both polymer and lipid based nanoparticles are utilized in nanomedicine and both are amenable to preparation by microfluidic approaches. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to collect the current state of knowledge on the microfluidic preparation of polymeric and lipid nanoparticles for pharmaceutical applications, including descriptions of the main synthesis modalities. Of special interest are the mechanisms involved in nanoparticle formation and the options for surface functionalisation to enhance cellular interactions. The review will conclude with the identification of key considerations for the production of polymeric and lipid nanoparticles using microfluidic approaches.

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Intratumor subsets with tumor-initiating features in glioblastoma are likely to survive treatment. Our goal is to identify the key factor in the process by which cells develop temozolomide (TMZ) resistance.

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal degenerative disease of a rapid course. In 25% of ALS sufferers, speech disorders occur as prodromal symptoms of the disease. Impaired communication affects physical health and has a negative impact on mental and emotional condition. In this study, we assessed which domains of speech are particularly affected in ALS. Subsequently, we estimated possible correlations between the ALS patients' subjective perception of their speech quality and an objective assessment of the speech organs carried out by an expert.