SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

 

0

Background: Far less is known about the reasons for hospitalization or mortality during and after hospitalization among school-aged children than among under-fives in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to describe common types of illness causing hospitalisation; inpatient mortality and post-discharge mortality among school-age children at Kilifi County Hospital (KCH), Kenya. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of children 5-12 years old admitted at KCH, 2007 to 2016, and resident within the Kilifi Health Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS). Children discharged alive were followed up for one year by quarterly census. Outcomes were inpatient and one-year post-discharge mortality. Results: We included 3,907 admissions among 3,196 children with a median age of 7 years 8 months (IQR 74-116 months). Severe anaemia (792, 20%), malaria (749, 19%), sickle cell disease (408, 10%), trauma (408, 10%), and severe pneumonia (340, 8.7%) were the commonest reasons for admission. Comorbidities included 623 (16%) with severe wasting, 386 (10%) with severe stunting, 90 (2.3%) with oedematous malnutrition and 194 (5.0%) with HIV infection. 132 (3.4%) children died during hospitalisation. Inpatient death was associated with signs of disease severity, age, bacteraemia, HIV infection and severe stunting. After discharge, 89/2,997 (3.0%) children died within one year during 2,853 child-years observed (31.2 deaths [95%CI, 25.3-38.4] per 1,000 child-years). 63/89 (71%) of post-discharge deaths occurred within three months and 45% of deaths occurred outside hospital. Post-discharge mortality was positively associated with weak pulse, tachypnoea, severe anaemia, HIV infection and severe wasting and negatively associated with malaria.  Conclusions: Reasons for admissions are markedly different from those reported in under-fives. There was significant post-discharge mortality, suggesting hospitalisation is a marker of risk in this population. Our findings inform guideline development to include risk stratification, targeted post-discharge care and facilitate access to healthcare to improve survival in the early months post-discharge in school-aged children.

0

Medication alone is not sufficient to treat insomnia. In addition, the side effects of sleep medications themselves cannot be ignored during treatment. Insomnia begins with poor sleep quality and discomfort, but as it continues, patients fall into a vicious circle of insomnia with negative thoughts and dysfunctional and distorted perceptions related to sleep. Mindfulness-based intervention for insomnia corrects these sequential cognitive and behavioral processes. The mindfulness technique basically recognizes all the thoughts, feelings, and experiences that occur to us as they are, nonjudgmentally, and then trains them to return to the senses of our body. In this way, while noticing all the processes of the sequential vicious cycle and training them to return to our bodies (e.g., breathing), mindfulness determines whether we are really sleepy or just fatigued. This mindfulness-based intervention can be a useful nonpharmaceutical intervention for insomnia, and its stability and efficacy has been proven by many studies.

0

This study evaluated the role of endogenous and exogenous annexin A1 (AnxA1) in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in isolated peritoneal neutrophils. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and AnxA1 knockout mice (AnxA1-/-) received 0.3% carrageenan intraperitoneally and, after 3 h, the peritoneal exudate was collected. WT and AnxA1-/- neutrophils were then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, followed by the NLRP3 agonists nigericin or ATP. To determine the exogenous effect of AnxA1, the neutrophils were pretreated with the AnxA1-derived peptide Ac2-26 followed by the NLRP3 agonists. Ac2-26 administration reduced NLRP3-derived IL-1β production by WT neutrophils after nigericin and ATP stimulation. However, IL-1β release was impaired in AnxA1-/- neutrophils stimulated by both agonists, and there was no further impairment in IL-1β release with Ac2-26 treatment before stimulation. Despite this, ATP- and nigericin-stimulated AnxA1-/- neutrophils had increased levels of cleaved caspase-1. The lipidomics of supernatants from nigericin-stimulated WT and AnxA1-/- neutrophils showed potential lipid biomarkers of cell stress and activation, including specific sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. AnxA1 peptidomimetic treatment also increased the concentration of phosphatidylserines and oxidized phosphocholines, which are lipid biomarkers related to the inflammatory resolution pathway. Together, our results indicate that exogenous AnxA1 negatively regulates NLRP3-derived IL-1β production by neutrophils, while endogenous AnxA1 is required for the activation of the NLRP3 machinery.

0

To determine the therapeutic effect and tolerability of meropenem in routine clinical practice, in terms of clinical and microbiological response.

0

Okara is a white-yellow fibrous residue consisting of the insoluble fraction of the soybean seeds remaining after extraction of the aqueous fraction during the production of tofu and soymilk, and is generally considered a waste product. It is packed with a significant number of proteins, isoflavones, soluble and insoluble fibers, soyasaponins, and other mineral elements, which are all attributed with health merits. With the increasing production of soy beverages, huge quantities of this by-product are produced annually, which poses significant disposal problems and financial issues for producers. Extensive studies have been done on the biological activities, nutritional values, and chemical composition of okara as well as its potential utilization. Owing to its peculiar rich fiber composition and low cost of production, okara might be potentially useful in the food industry as a functional ingredient or good raw material and could be used as a dietary supplement to prevent varied ailments such as prevention of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, as well as to stimulate the growth of intestinal microbes and production of microbe-derived metabolites (xenometabolites), since gut dysbiosis (imbalanced microbiota) has been implicated in the progression of several complex diseases. This review seeks to compile scientific research on the bioactive compounds in soybean residue (okara) and discuss the possible prebiotic impact of this fiber-rich residue as a functional diet on eubiosis/dysbiosis condition of the gut, as well as the consequential influence on liver and kidney functions, to facilitate a detailed knowledge base for further exploration, implementation, and development.

0

Allopolyploidy is an evolutionary and mechanistically intriguing process involving the reconciliation of two or more sets of diverged genomes and regulatory interactions, resulting in new phenotypes. In this study, we explored the gene expression patterns of eight F2 synthetic Brassica napus using RNA sequencing. We found that B. napus allopolyploid formation was accompanied by extensive changes in gene expression. A comparison between F2 and the parent shows a certain proportion of differentially expressed genes (DEG) and activation\silent gene, and the two genomes (female parent (AA)\male parent (CC) genomes) showed significant differences in response to whole-genome duplication (WGD); non-additively expressed genes represented a small portion, while Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that it played an important role in responding to WGD. Besides, genome-wide expression level dominance (ELD) was biased toward the AA genome, and the parental expression pattern of most genes showed a high degree of conservation. Moreover, gene expression showed differences among eight individuals and was consistent with the results of a cluster analysis of traits. Furthermore, the differential expression of waxy synthetic pathways and flowering pathway genes could explain the performance of traits. Collectively, gene expression of the newly formed allopolyploid changed dramatically, and this was different among the selfing offspring, which could be a prominent cause of the trait separation. Our data provide novel insights into the relationship between the expression of differentially expressed genes and trait segregation and provide clues into the evolution of allopolyploids.

0

Excess body weight is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated metabolic complications, and weight loss has been shown to improve glycemic control and decrease morbidity and mortality in T2D patients. Weight-loss strategies using dietary interventions produce a significant decrease in diabetes-related metabolic disturbance. We have previously reported that the supplementation of low molecular chitosan oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) significantly inhibited blood glucose levels in both animals and humans. However, the effect of GO2KA1 on obesity still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of GO2KA1 on lipid accumulation and adipogenic gene expression using 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro and plasma lipid profiles using a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were stimulated to differentiate under the adipogenic stimulation in the presence and absence of varying concentrations of GO2KA1. Adipocyte differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O staining of lipids and the expression of adipogenic gene expression. Compared to control group, the cells treated with GO2KA1 significantly decreased in intracellular lipid accumulation with concomitant decreases in the expression of key transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBP/α). Consistently, the mRNA expression of downstream adipogenic target genes such as fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FAS), were significantly lower in the GO2KA1-treated group than in the control group. In vivo, male SD rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks to induced obesity, followed by oral administration of GO2KA1 at 0.1 g/kg/body weight or vehicle control in HFD. We assessed body weight, food intake, plasma lipids, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) for liver function, and serum level of adiponectin, a marker for obesity-mediated metabolic syndrome. Compared to control group GO2KA1 significantly suppressed body weight gain (185.8 ± 8.8 g vs. 211.6 ± 20.1 g, p < 0.05) with no significant difference in food intake. The serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were significantly lower in the GO2KA1-treated group than in the control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was higher in the GO2KA1 group. The GO2KA1-treated group also showed a significant reduction in ALT and AST levels compared to the control. Moreover, serum adiponectin levels were significantly 1.5-folder higher than the control group. These in vivo and in vitro findings suggest that dietary supplementation of GO2KA1 may prevent diet-induced weight gain and the anti-obesity effect is mediated in part by inhibiting adipogenesis and increasing adiponectin level.

0

The advancement of our knowledge on the ecology and biology of aquatic insects is essential to improving our understanding of their roles in water quality, disease ecology, as indicators of climate change, biodiversity, as well as community structure and ecosystem functioning […].

0

Amazonian fruits are excellent sources of bioactive compounds and can be used in beverages to improve the nutritional and sensorial characteristics. The present study aimed to develop a blend of murici (Byrsonima Crassifolia (L.) Kunth) and taperebá (Spondias Mombin L.) through experimental design and investigating the nutritional and sensorial characteristics of fruits and beverages. The murici was highlighted as higher vitamin C content (58.88 mg · 100 g-1) compared to taperebá (25.93 mg · 100 g-1). The murici and taperebá are good sources of total phenolic compounds (taperebá 1304.15 ± 19.14 mgGAE · 100 g-1 and the murici of 307.52 ± 19.73 mg GAE · 100 g-1) and flavonoids (174.87 ± 1.76 μgQE/g and 129.46 ± 10.68 μgQE/g, murici and taperebá, respectively), when compared to other Brazilian fruits. The antioxidant capacity in different methods revealed that the taperebá had a higher average in the results, only in the ORAC method and did not present a significant difference (p > 0.05) in relation to the murici. The beverage development was performed using experimental design 23, showed through sensory analysis and surface response methodology that murici and high sugar content (between 12.5 and 14.2% of sugar) influenced in sensory acceptance. Our findings indicate that beverages with improved nutrition and a sensory acceptance can be prepared using taperebá and murici fruits.

0

Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery has been implemented to overcome typical limitations of conventional laparoscopy such as lack of angulation, especially during creation of biliary and pancreatic anastomoses. With this retrospective analysis, we provide our experience with the first 101 consecutive robotic pancreatic resection performed at our center. Distal pancreatectomies (RDP, N = 44), total pancreatectomies (RTP, N = 3) and pancreaticoduodenectomies (RPD, N = 54) were included. Malignancy was found in 45.5% (RDP), 66.7% (RTP) and 61% (RPD). Procedure times decreased from the first to the second half of the cohort for RDP (218 min vs. 128 min, p = 0.02) and RPD (378 min vs. 271 min, p < 0.001). Overall complication rate was 63%, 33% and 66% for RPD, RPT and RDP, respectively. Reintervention and reoperation rates were 41% and 17% (RPD), 33% and 0% (RTP) and 50% and 11.4% (RPD), respectively. The thirty-day mortality rate was 5.6% for RPD and nil for RTP and RDP. Overall complication rate remained stable throughout the study period. In this series, implementation of robotic pancreas surgery was safe and feasible. Final evaluation of the anastomoses through the median retrieval incision compensated for the lack of haptic feedback during reconstruction and allowed for secure minimally invasive resection and reconstruction.