SciCombinator

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The dissipation of three field-applied pesticides (chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and malathion), on cultivated prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) pads was studied. The extraction of pesticides was carried out using the European quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique and detection was carried out using tandem liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. At harvest, 15 days after application, pesticide dissipation was below the level of detectability. Dissipation curves for prickly pear pads fit to a first-order kinetic equation. Two initial concentration levels were used for each pesticide. The approximate dissipation time for all pesticides studied was similar (10 days) and the half-life time was around six days. Final concentrations for the three pesticides were below the reference maximum residue level (MRL) (0.01 mg/kg), which suggests that these products can be applied safely in the commercial production of prickly pear pads at the established concentrations.

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The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) analyze the variations of internal and external load between intermittent regimens (6 × 3' and 3 × 6') during a small-sided game (SSG); and (ii) analyze the variations of internal and external load within-intermittent regimens (between sets). Ten male amateur soccer players (age: 21.7 ± 2.1 years) participated in this study. Almost certain large decreases in total distance (-8.6%, [-12.3; -4.8], Effect Size (ES): -1.51, [-2.20; -0.82]) and running distance (-34.0%, [47.0; -17.8], ES: -2.23, [-3.40; -1.05]) were observed when comparing the 3 × 6' and 6 × 3'. Very likely moderate and large decreases in total accelerations (-24.0%, [-35.1; -10.9]; ES: -1.11, [-1.75; -0.47]) and total of decelerations (-26.7%, [-38.8; -12.1]; ES:-1.49, [-2.36; -0.62]), respectively, were found when comparing the 3 × 6' and 6 × 3'. Very likely increases in rated of perceived exertion in the set 3 in comparison to the 1st during the 3 × 6' SSG (34.5%, [12.4; 61.0], ES: 1.35, [0.53; 2.16]) and the 6 × 3' (29.9%, [11.6; 51.2]; ES: 1.17, [0.49; 1.85]). Longer sets increase the perception of effort and contribute to a large decrease in total and running distances, and total of accelerations and decelerations. Meaningful decreases in time-motion demands occur between sets 2 and 3 while perceived effort increases.

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Poor eating habits, such as the increasing consumption of highly processed products, have deleterious effects on health status and represent a serious challenge for public health systems […].

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Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata (RR, named as Shudihuang in traditional Chinese medicine), the steamed roots of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch (Scrophulariaceae), has been demonstrated to have anti-diabetic and anti-osteoporotic activities. This study aimed to explore the protective effect and underlying mechanism of RR on diabetes-induced bone loss. It was found that RR regulated the alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin level, enhanced bone mineral density, and improved the bone microarchitecture in diabetic rats. The catalpol (CAT), acteoside (ACT), and echinacoside (ECH) from RR increased the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells injured by high glucose and promoted the production of IGF-1 and expression of related proteins in BMP and IGF-1/PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTOR) signaling pathways. The verifying tests of inhibitors of BMP pathway (noggin) and IGF-1/PI3K/mTOR pathway (picropodophyllin) and molecular docking of IGF-1R further indicated that CAT, ACT, and ECH extracted from RR enhanced bone formation by regulating IGF-1/PI3K/mTOR signaling pathways. These findings suggest that RR may prove to be a promising candidate drug for the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced osteoporosis.

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In this study, effects of sintering temperature and TiH2 on the sintering process of Cu are investigated. During sintering, the oxide in Cu decomposes and generates oxygen, which can become trapped in the material forming closed pores. Therefore, this results in low sintered density. Sintering behavior of Cu can be significantly improved by adding 0.5 wt.% TiH2 which decomposes during sintering, producing hydrogen and effectively reducing the oxide in Cu. Although gas products of the reduction reaction may still be trapped inside the close pores formed near the TiH2 particles and handicap the sintering of Cu, an isothermal treatment at 650 °C can avoid forming close pores. This allows reaction products to dissipate freely from the sample, subsequently increasing its sintered density.

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Metal matrix composite coatings are developed to protect parts made from materials susceptible to wear, like nickel alloys or stainless steel. The industry-established deposition method is presently an atmospheric plasma spraying method since it allows the production of both well-adhering and thick coatings. Alternatively, similar coatings could be produced by co-milling of ceramic and alloyed powders together with metallic plates serving as substrates. It results in mechanical embedding of the powder particles into exposed metallic surfaces required coatings. The present experiment was aimed at the analysis of microstructure of such coatings obtained using NiAl and CrB2 powders. They were loaded together with nickel and stainless steel platelets into ball mill vials and rotated at 350 rpm for up to 32 h. This helped to produce coatings of a thickness up to ~40 µm. The optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy observations of the coatings led to conclusion that the higher the rotation speed of vials, the wider the intermixing zone between the coating and the substrate. Simultaneously, it was established that the total thickness of the coating deposited at specified conditions is limited by the brittleness of its nanocrystalline matrix. An increase in the hardness of the substrate results in a decrease of the intermixing zone. The above results indicate that even as the method based on mechanical embedding could so far produce thinner coatings than the plasma spraying, in the former case they are characterized by a more uniform nanocrystalline matrix with homogenously distributed fine ceramic particles.

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Bacterial heteroresistance (i.e., the co-existence of several subpopulations with different antibiotic susceptibilities) can delay the clearance of bacteria even with long antibiotic exposure. Some proposed mechanisms have been successfully described with mathematical models of drug-target binding where the mechanism’s downstream of drug-target binding are not explicitly modeled and subsumed in an empirical function, connecting target occupancy to antibiotic action. However, with current approaches it is difficult to model mechanisms that involve multi-step reactions that lead to bacterial killing. Here, we have a dual aim: first, to establish pharmacodynamic models that include multi-step reaction pathways, and second, to model heteroresistance and investigate which molecular heterogeneities can lead to delayed bacterial killing. We show that simulations based on Gillespie algorithms, which have been employed to model reaction kinetics for decades, can be useful tools to model antibiotic action via multi-step reactions. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of current models and Gillespie simulations. Finally, we show that in our models, slight normally distributed variances in the rates of any event leading to bacterial death can (depending on parameter choices) lead to delayed bacterial killing (i.e., heteroresistance). This means that a slowly declining residual bacterial population due to heteroresistance is most likely the default scenario and should be taken into account when planning treatment length.

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The impact of air-drying at 25 °C, brining at 25%, and dry-salting (at 28% and 40%) on the quality and nutritional parameters of Ulva rigida were evaluated over six months of storage. Overall, the main changes occurred in physical aspects during storage time, with U. rigida intensifying its yellow/browning tones, which were more evident in salt-treated samples. The force necessary to fracture the seaweed also increased under all the preservative conditions in the first month. Conversely, the nutritional parameters of U. rigida remained stable during the 180 days of storage. All processed samples showed a high content of insoluble and soluble fibers, overall accounting for 55%-57% dw, and of proteins (17.5%-19.2% dw), together with significant amounts of Fe (86-92 mg/kg dw). The total fatty acids pool only accounted for 3.9%-4.3% dw, but it was rich in unsaturated fatty acids (44%-49% total fatty acids), namely palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), and stearidonic (18:4) acids, with an overall omega 6/omega 3 ratio below 0.6, a fact that highlights their potential health-promoting properties.

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The prevalence of illicit drug misuse, including cannabis, in Croatian touristic regions is alarming. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of cannabis consumption (CC), to identify associations between sociodemographic and sport factors and CC, and to evaluate the predictors of CC initiation in adolescents residing in touristic regions. This study enrolled 644 adolescents from two touristic regions in Croatia (Split-Dalmatia and Dubrovnik-Neretva County) who were tested at baseline (16 years of age) and follow-up (18 years of age). The study instrument consisted of questions focused on predictors (age, gender (male, female), place of residence (urban or rural environment), familial social status, and different sport-related factors) and CC outcome. The results indicated a high prevalence of cannabis consumption (>30% of adolescents consumed cannabis), with a higher prevalence in males, and adolescents from rural communities. The prevalence of CC increased by 10% during the study period, with no significant differences between genders in trajectories of changes. Quitting sports was a risk factor for CC at baseline and follow-up. Better sport competitive results (odds ratio (OR): 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96) and familial social status (socioeconomic status: OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.39-0.91; maternal education: OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.48-0.88) were associated with lower likelihood of CC at baseline. The adolescents who reported better sport competitive results were at increased risk for initiation of CC during the course of the study (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-2.01). The protective effects of sports at baseline were most likely related to various factors that prevent the consumption of substances in youth athletes (i.e., commitment to results, adult supervision); with the end of active participation, adolescent athletes are at high risk for CC initiation.

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Neck pain, whether from a traumatic event such as a motor vehicle crash or of a non-traumatic nature, is a leading cause of worldwide disability. This narrative review evaluated the evidence from systematic reviews, recent randomised controlled trials, clinical practice guidelines, and other relevant studies for the effects of rehabilitation approaches for chronic neck pain. Rehabilitation was defined as the aim to restore a person to health or normal life through training and therapy and as such, passive interventions applied in isolation were not considered. The results of this review found that the strongest treatment effects to date are those associated with exercise. Strengthening exercises of the neck and upper quadrant have a moderate effect on neck pain in the short-term. The evidence was of moderate quality at best, indicating that future research will likely change these conclusions. Lower quality evidence and smaller effects were found for other exercise approaches. Other treatments, including education/advice and psychological treatment, showed only very small to small effects, based on low to moderate quality evidence. The review also provided suggestions for promising future directions for clinical practice and research.