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Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic Candida species in dental plaque on tooth surfaces. Candida biofilms exhibit an enhanced resistance against most antifungal agents. Thus, the development of alternative more potent and effective antimicrobials is required to overcome this resistance. In this study, three novel fluorinated derivatives and nine selenoester compounds were screened as novel antifungal and antibiofilm agents against C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata (N = 81 dental isolates). C. glabrata strains were susceptible only to fluorinated compounds while C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata were susceptible to the action of the selenoesters. The evaluated symmetrical selenoester compounds presented very good antifungal activity against all the tested C. glabrata dental isolates (1-4 μg/mL of minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC). The most active compound (Se-5) was able to inhibit and disperse C. glabrata biofilms. These results demonstrated that selenoesters may be novel and promising biocide agents against C. glabrata clinical dental isolates.

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The present work describes an impedimetric immunosensor for Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (Psl) detection. This pathogen infects many crop species causing considerable yield losses, thus fast and cheap detection method is in high demand. In the assay, the gold disc electrode was modified with 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP), glutaraldehyde (GA), and anti-Psl antibodies, and free-sites were blocked with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Sensor development was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and antigen detection by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Seven analyzed strains of Psl were verified as positive by the reference method (PCR) and this immunoassay, proving sensor specificity. Label-free electrochemical detection was in the linear range 1 × 103-1.2 × 105 CFU/mL (colony-forming unit) with an R2 coefficient of 0.992 and a detection limit (LOD) of 337 CFU/mL. The sensor did not interfere with negative probes like buffers and other bacteria. The assay was proven to be fast (10 min detection) and easy in preparation. The advantage was the simplicity and availability of the verified analyte (whole bacteria) as the method does not require sample pretreatment (e.g., DNA isolation). EIS biosensing technique was chosen as one of the simplest and most sensitive with the least destructive influence on the probes compared to other electrochemical methods.

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Ginseng is one of the most valuable and commonly used Chinese medicines not only in ancient China but also worldwide. Ginsenosides, also known as saponins or triterpenoids, are thought to be responsible for the beneficial effects of ginseng. In this review, we summarize recent publications on anti-diabetic studies of ginseng extracts and ginsenosides in cells, animals, and humans. It seems that the anti-diabetic effect of ginseng is positive for type 2 diabetic patients but has no significant impact on prediabetes or healthy adults. Regulation of insulin secretion, glucose uptake, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-inflammatory pathways may be the mechanisms involved with ginseng’s anti-diabetic effects. Taken together, this summary provides evidence for the anti-diabetes effects of ginseng extracts and ginsenosides as well as the underlying mechanisms of their impact on diabetes.

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Nano- and microfibers based on biopolymers are some of the most attractive issues of biotechnology due to their unique properties and effectiveness. Hyaluronan is well-known as a biodegradable, naturally-occurring polymer, which has great potential for being utilized in a fibrous form. The obtaining of fibers from hyaluronan presents a major challenge because of the hydrophilic character of the polymer and the high viscosity level of its solutions. Electrospinning, as the advanced and effective method of the fiber generation, is difficult. The nano- and microfibers from hyaluronan may be obtained by utilizing special techniques, including binary/ternary solvent systems and several polymers described as modifying (or carrying), such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This paper reviews various methods for the synthesis of hyaluronan-based fibers, and also collects brief information on the properties and biological activity of hyaluronan and fibrous materials based on it.

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The purpose of this work is to explore the predictive ability of the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) biowaiver based on the dissolution methods for two pravastatin test products, where one of them showed bioequivalence (BE) while the other test failed (non-bioequivalence, or NBE), and to explore the reasons for the BE failure. Experimental solubility and permeability data confirmed that pravastatin is a BCS class III compound. The permeability experiments confirmed that the NBE formulation significantly increased pravastatin permeability, and could explain its higher absorption rate and higher Cmax. This finding highlights the relevance of requiring similar excipients for BCS class III drugs. The BCS-based biowaiver dissolution tests at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8, with the paddle apparatus at 50 rpm in 900 mL media, were not able to detect differences in pravastatin products, although the NBE formulation exhibited a more rapid dissolution at earlier sampling times. Dissolution tests conducted in 500 mL did not achieve complete dissolution, and both formulations were dissimilar because the amount dissolved at 15 min was less than 85%. The difference was less than 10% at pH 1.2 and 4.5, while at pH 6.8 f2, results reflected the Cmax rank order.

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In this paper, we propose an efficient COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) iteration circuit design for Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensors. A novel CORDIC architecture that achieves the goal of pre-selecting angles and reduces the number of iterations is presented for LiDAR sensors. The value of the trigonometric functions can be found in seven rotations regardless of the number of input N digits. The number of iterations are reduced by more than half. The experimental results show the similarity value to be all 1 and prove that the LiDAR decoded packet results are exactly the same as the ground truth. The total chip area is 1.93 mm × 1.93 mm and the core area is 1.32 mm × 1.32 mm, separately. The number of logic gates is 129,688. The designed chip only takes 0.012 ms and 0.912 ms to decode a packet and a 3D frame of LiDAR sensors, respectively. The throughput of the chip is 8.2105   ×   10 8 bits/sec. The average power consumption is 237.34 mW at a maximum operating frequency of 100 MHz. This design can not only reduce the number of iterations and the computing time but also reduce the chip area. This paper provides an efficient CORDIC iteration design and solution for LiDAR sensors to reconstruct the point-cloud map for autonomous vehicles.

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The kinase AKT2 (PKB) is an important mediator of insulin signaling, for which loss-of-function knockout (KO) mutants lead to early onset diabetes mellitus, and dominant active mutations lead to early development of obesity and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction. To model EC dysfunction, we used edited human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) that carried either a homozygous deletion of AKT2 (AKT2 KO) or a dominant active mutation (AKT2 E17K), which, along with the parental wild type (WT), were differentiated into ECs. Profiling of EC lines indicated an increase in proinflammatory and a reduction in anti-inflammatory fatty acids, an increase in inflammatory chemokines in cell supernatants, increased expression of proinflammatory genes, and increased binding to the EC monolayer in a functional leukocyte adhesion assay for both AKT2 KO and AKT2 E17K. Collectively, these findings suggest that vascular endothelial inflammation that results from dysregulated insulin signaling (homeostasis) may contribute to coronary artery disease, and that either downregulation or upregulation of the insulin pathway may lead to inflammation of endothelial cells. This suggests that the standard of care for patients must be expanded from control of metabolic parameters to include control of inflammation, such that endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disorders can ultimately be prevented.

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Impulse response function (IRF) is an ideal structural damage index for the identification of structural damage associated with changes in modal properties. However, IRFs from multiple excitations applied at different degrees-of-freedoms jointly contribute to the dynamic response, and their estimation is often underdetermined. Although some efforts have been devoted to the estimation of IRF for a structure under single excitation, the case under multiple excitations has not been fully investigated yet. The estimation of IRF under multiple excitations is generally an ill-conditioned inverse problem such that an incorrect or non-feasible solution is common, preventing its application to damage detection. This work explores this problem by introducing dimensionality reduction transformation matrices relating two sets of IRFs of a structure with discussions on the performance of the non-unique transformation matrices. Then, the extraction of IRF via wavelet-based and Tikhonov regularization-based methods are compared. Finally, a numerical study with a truss structure is conducted to validate the estimation of the IRFs and to demonstrate their applicability for damage detection under seismic excitations. Both the damage locations and severity are accurately identified, indicating the proposed methodology can enable the IRFs estimation under multiple excitations for successful damage detection.

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Eighty-seven samples of malt from several Polish malting plants and 157 beer samples from the beer available on the Polish market (in 2018) were tested for Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV)), and their modified forms ((deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3G), nivalenol-3-glucoside (NIV-3G), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON)). DON and its metabolite, DON-3G, were found the most, among the samples analyzed; DON and DON-3G were present in 90% and 91% of malt samples, and in 97% and 99% of beer samples, respectively. NIV was found in 24% of malt samples and in 64% of beer samples, and NIV-3G was found in 48% of malt samples and 39% of beer samples. In the malt samples, the mean concentration of DON was 52.9 µg/kg (range: 5.3-347.6 µg/kg) and that of DON-3G was 74.1 µg/kg (range: 4.4-410.3 µg/kg). In the beer samples, the mean concentration of DON was 12.3 µg/L (range: 1.2-156.5 µg/L) and that of DON-3G was 7.1 µg/L (range: 0.6-58.4 µg/L). The concentrations of other tested mycotoxins in the samples of malt and beer were several times lower. The risk of exposure to the tested mycotoxins, following the consumption of beer in Poland, was assessed. The corresponding probable daily intakes (PDIs) remained a small fraction of the tolerable daily intake (TDI). However, in the improbable worst-case scenario, in which every beer bottle consumed would be contaminated with mycotoxins present at the highest level observed among the analyzed beer samples, the PDI would exceed the TDI for DON and its metabolite after the consumption of a single bottle (0.5 L) of beer.

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Jasmonates (JAs) together with jasmonic acid and its offshoots are lipid-derived endogenous hormones that play key roles in both developmental processes and different defense responses in plants. JAs have been studied intensively in the past decades for their substantial roles in plant defense comebacks against diverse environmental stresses among model plants. However, the role of this phytohormone has been poorly investigated in the monocotyledonous species against abiotic stresses. In this study, a JA biosynthesis mutant opr7opr8 was used for the investigation of JA roles in the salt stress responses of maize seedlings, whose roots were exposed to 0 to 300 mM NaCl. Foliar stomatal observation showed that opr7opr8 had a larger stomatal aperture than wild type (WT) (B73) under salinity stress, indicating that JA positively regulates guard cell movement under salt stress. The results regarding chlorophyll content and leaf senescence showed that opr7opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence under salt stress as compared to WT, indicating that JA plays a role in salt-inducing cell death and subsequent leaf senescence. Moreover, the morphological parameters, including the length of the shoots and roots, and the fresh and dry weights of the shoots and roots, showed that after 7 days of salt treatment, opr7opr8 had heavier and longer shoots than WT but slighter and shorter roots than WT. In addition, ion analysis showed that opr7opr8 accumulated less sodium but more potassium in the leaves than WT but more sodium and less potassium in the roots than WT, suggesting that JA deficiency causes higher salt stress to the roots but less stress to the leaves of the seedlings. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis showed that opr7opr8 produced less H2O2 than WT in the leaves but more H2O2 in the roots under salt treatment, and correspondingly, ROS-scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) showed a similar variation, i.e., opr7opr8 has lower enzymatic activities in the shoots but higher activities in the roots than WT under salt treatment. For osmotic adjustment, opr7opr8 produced less proline in the shoots at 100 and 300 mM NaCl treatments but more in the roots than the WT roots under all salt treatments. In addition, the gene expression for abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis under salt stress was investigated. Results showed that the expression levels of four key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, ZEP1, NCED5, AO1, and VP10, were significantly downregulated in the shoots as compared to WT under salt treatment. Putting all the data together, we concluded that JA-deficiency in maize seedlings reduced the salt-stress responses in the shoots but exaggerated the responses in the roots. In addition, endogenous JA acted as a positive regulator for the transportation of sodium ions from the roots to the shoots because the mutant opr7opr8 had a higher level of sodium in the roots but a significantly lower level in the shoots than WT. Furthermore, JA may act as a positive regulator for ABA biosynthesis in the leaves under salt stress.