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Journal: Zootaxa


Seven new species of the Australian peacock spider genus Maratus Karsch, 1878 are described from Victoria, South Australia, and Western Australia: Maratus azureus sp. nov., Maratus constellatus sp. nov., Maratus inaquosus sp. nov., Maratus laurenae sp. nov., Maratus noggerup sp. nov., Maratus suae sp. nov., and Maratus volpei sp. nov.


The black-faced uacaris are a poorly known group of platyrrhine monkeys from the Rio Negro basin in northwestern Amazonia. Originally described as two distinct species-Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt 1812) and Cacajao ouakary (Spix 1823)-from opposite banks of the Negro, they were treated as a single species until the end of the twentieth century, when molecular studies reconfirmed their status as true species. One of these studies not only nominated a third (northern) species, Cacajao ayresi Boubli et al. 2008, but also identified C. ouakary as a junior synonym of C. melanocephalus, resulting in the introduction of a new nomen, Cacajao hosomi Boubli et al. 2008. In the present study, additional evidence on morphological and zoogeographic variables is analyzed, which indicates that C. ouakary should be reinstated, and supports the nomination of a neotype of C. melanocephalus. The molecular and zoogeographic data on the species status of the ayresi form are also re-assessed, leading to the conclusion that, on the basis of the evidence available at the present time, this form should be considered a subspecies of C. melanocephalus. A new taxonomic arrangement is proposed, which recognizes two species, C. ouakary and C. melanocephalus, the latter with two subspecies, C. m. melanocephalus and C. m. ayresi.

Concepts: Present, Time, Modern history, Taxonomic rank, Pitheciidae, Zoological nomenclature, Sakis and uakaris


The Olenelloidea are a superfamily of early Cambrian trilobites, which have been the subject of several phylogenetic analyses and also used to address macroevolutionary questions regarding the nature and timing of the Cambrian radiation. The Sekwi Formation of the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada, has yielded numerous species from this clade, and here we present new information that expands on the diversity known from this biogeographically and biostratigraphically important region. In particular, we describe seven new species, (Olenellus baileyi, Mesonacis wileyi, Elliptocephala jaredi, Holmiella taurus, H. domackae, Mummaspis delgadoae, and Bristolia colberti). Also recovered are specimens of Elliptocephala logani, specimens that shared affinities with Olenellus clarki, O. getzi, O. fowleri, and Frizolenellus hanseni, and one partial specimen, which appears to be a new species of Bolbolenellus. 

Concepts: Evolution, Biology, Canada, Northwest Territories, Yukon, Nahanni National Park Reserve, Mackenzie River, Mount Nirvana


Apobaetis Day, 1955 species are known for their small size and preference for sandy stream substrate. Species which possess such habitat preference commonly possess long and slender legs and claws, but, in Apobaetis, the length of the tarsal claw rarely is so long that it exceeds the length of tarsus, occurring only in two species: A. lakota McCafferty, 2000 from USA and A. hamadae Cruz, Boldrini & Salles, 2011 from Brazil. In the present study, two new species with tarsal claws that exceed the length of the tarsi are described: Apobaetis pucupi sp. nov. from southeast Brazil and Apobaetis kethepiali sp. nov. from northernmost Brazil. Additionally, a new key for nymphs of Apobaetis is proposed.

Concepts: Present, Tarsus, Claw, Baetidae, Mayflies


A new species of pterosaur, Maaradactylus kellneri gen. nov., sp. nov. (Archosauria: Pterosauria) from the Romualdo Formation (Aptian/Albian), is herein described. The specimen (MPSC R 2357) was found at Sítio São Gonçalo, Santana do Cariri city (State of Ceará, northeast Brazil) and consists of the skull, atlas and axis, and represents one of the largest skulls of the Anhangueridae from the Araripe Basin described. The autapomorphies of the new pterosaur include the following characters: a premaxillary sagittal crest that is relatively long and high, beginning at the anterior part of the skull (rostrum) and extending to the 22nd pair of alveoli, not covering the nasoantorbital fenestra or the choanaes, and also the presence of 35 pairs of alveoli; smooth palatal ridge, which starts on the 5th pair of alveoli and ends on the 13th pair; palate is convex shaped in the anterior region; choanae not extending laterally; small and convex palatal elevation; the 5th, 6th and 7th alveoli smaller than the 4th and 8th; the alveoli decreasing in size from the 9th to the 12th and increasing from the 13th to 18th, and from the 18th to the 35th they are arranged in triplets. Furthermore, the lateral surface of the premaxillary crest shows grooves and tridimensional structures that may have housed blood vessels.

Concepts: Monotonic function, Skull, Cretaceous, Pterosaur, Pterodactyloidea, Northeast Region, Brazil, Skull and Bones, Spinosauridae


Numerous species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been recorded from saltbush (Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex) around the world but only 11 of them belong to the large cecidomyiid genus Asphondylia. Of these, two species were described in the late 19th century from complex bud galls on Atriplex halimus in the Mediterranean Basin. In the present study Asphondylia punica is redescribed, A. conglomerata is synonymized with it, and Asphondylia scopuli is described from Atriplex lanfrancoi, an endemic plant to the Maltese Islands. Descriptions are accompanied by information about the galls and life history of the gall midges, and a review of the parasitic Hymenoptera associated with A. scopuli is provided. Four species of parasitoids were found and attributed to the families Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae, of which the pteromalid Mesopolobus melitensis is described as new.

Concepts: Nematocera, Species, Flies, Parasitoid, Apocrita, Biological pest control agents, Cecidomyiidae, Atriplex


Coprophanaeus machadoi, species described based on a single male from Minas Gerais, was recently synonymized with C. saphirinus (Sturm, 1826). In this work, based on examination of more than 500 specimens from Brazilian Atlantic Forest, we introduce new evidence supporting the validity of C. machadoi, including differences in male pronotal ornamentation, in the form of the parameres, and in distribution. We also describe for the first time the female of C. machadoi and discuss the intraspecific color variation of C. saphirinus.

Concepts: Insect, Beetle, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Dung beetle, Scarabaeidae, Khepri, Scarabaeinae


During our study of biodiversity of Rotifera in PR China, as model taxon of freshwater Micrometazoa, we came across several records that warrant revision regarding species of genus Mytilina Bory de St. Vincent, 1826 (Rotifera, Monogonta, Mytilinidae). In addition to this review we describe a new species encountered during examination of freshwater habitats of Inner Mongolia, P.R.China. This new species, Mytilina wangi n. sp., appears to belong to the Mytilina mucronata - ventralis complex but differs from the known taxa in the group by its domed lorica and relatively short toes. We provide an annotated checklist of the Chinese representatives of the genus and discuss the species of the M. mucronata-ventralis group. We suggest treating M. brevispina (Ehrenberg, 1830) and M. ventralis (Ehrenberg, 1830)(synonym: M. macracantha (Gosse, 1886)) as separate species-level taxa rather than as two infrasubspecific variants of the same species, and argue that Mytilina trigona var. bispinosa Wang, 1961 is a misidentified M. acanthophora Hauer, 1938 rather than an infrasubspecific variant of M. trigona (Gosse, 1851). 

Concepts: Species, China, People's Republic of China, Inner Mongolia, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Botanical nomenclature, Mongolia, Hui people


An updated list of Issidae known from Vietnam is provided. Two new species, one from the genus Darwallia Gnezdilov, 2010, and another one from a new genus are described from the Hòn Bà massif in Central Vietnam. A key to species of the genus Darwallia is provided. Gelastyrella hainanensis Ran et Liang, 2006 is placed in synonymy under Thabena litaoensis Yang, 1994. This last taxon and the genus Gergithoides Schumacher, 1915 are recorded for the first time for Vietnamese fauna. New records in Vietnam are given for Tetrica philo Fennah, 1978 and Gergithus iguchii Matsumura, 1916. 

Concepts: Class, Scientific classification, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Zoological nomenclature, Botanical nomenclature, Chresonym, March 10, March 14


A new species of freshwater crab, Microthelphusa furcifer, is described and illustrated from the Potaro-Siparuni Kuribrong River in the Guyana Shield (Amazon region of Guyana). The new species can be easily separated from its congeners by the morphology of the first gonopod. The first gonopod of Microthelphusa meansi Cumberlidge, 2007, is illustrated to clarify some aspects of its morphology. 

Concepts: Species, Crustacean, River, Amazon River, Brazil, South America, Crab, Guyana