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Journal: Zhonghua yi xue za zhi

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Objective: To compare the postoperative outcomes and urinary continence recovery time between standard robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) and Retzius-sparing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RsRARP). Methods: A total of 92 patients with low to intermediate-risk prostate cancer who underwent RARP (n=52) and RsRARP (n=40) in Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital from October, 2016 to January, 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative data (operative time, estimated blood loss, complications, postoperative staging, postoperative Gleason score) and surgical outcomes (rate of margin positive, urinary continence recovery time) of RARP and RsRARP group were comparatively analyzed. Results: All 92 cases were successfully performed with robot. RARP group had a significantly shorter mean operative time when compared with that in RsRARP group ((103±23) min vs (130±26) min, P<0.05). The two groups had comparable estimated blood loss ((100±54) ml vs (103±64) ml, P>0.05), rate of postoperative infection (5.8% (3/52) vs 5.0% (2/40), P>0.05) and rate of postoperative urine leakage (3.8%(2/52) vs 2.5%(1/40), P>0.05). The two groups had a comparable rate of margin positive (7.7%(4/52) vs 12.5%(5/40), P>0.05). Compared with RsRARP group, the RARP group had a lower rate of urinary continence recovery immediately after the catheter removing at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after the operation (all P>0.05). The two group had a comparable rate of urinary continence recovery at 6 months after the operation (P>0.05). Conclusion: The RsRARP technique has a good tumor control and obvious advantage of early urinary continence recovery compared with the standard RARP technique. RsRARP technique is safe and effective for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.

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Objective: To investigate the general situation, detection range, testing reagents, and clinical performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs) in Chinese laboratories. Methods: The National Center for Clinical Laboratories of the National Health Commission designed a questionnaire for the detection of CNVs by NIPT, which included the investigation of whether the laboratory has carried out NIPT to detect CNVs and its testing scope, reagents/platforms, intended uses, screening populations and clinical performance. The questionnaires were distributed to 355 laboratories in 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities across the country on October, 2020. Further, the feedbacks were statistical analyzed. Results: Two hundred and twenty-eight laboratories had performed NIPT to detect CNVs, including 116 types of CNVs, and more than 95% of laboratories chose to detect the CNVs of 5p15 deletion, 22q11.2 deletion, 1p36 deletion, and 15q11.2 deletion. All testing reagents used were laboratory-developed tests and were based on massive parallel sequencing, the minimum amount of sequencing data was 3-15 M reads, the detection limit of fetal fraction was 3%-5%, and the minimum size of variants that can be detected was 1-5 Mb. The proportion of laboratories that apply CNVs testing for daily project, voluntary requirements of patients, and scientific research were 58.8% (134/228), 57.5% (131/228), and 20.6% (47/228), respectively. One hundred and thirty-four laboratories were fully or partially aware of the clinical performance of NIPT to detect microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, and the laboratories' declared sensitivity of NIPT for Cri du Chat syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, 1p36 deletion syndrome, and Angelman syndrome were 50.0%-100%, 60.0%-100%, 50.0%-100%, and 33.3%-100%, and the positive predictive values were 9.0%-50.0%, 18.0%-100%, 20.0%-30.0%, and 20.0%. Conclusion: The detection of CNVs by NIPT in Chinese laboratories need to be standardized. Laboratories should detect CNVs with clear clinical significance in accordance with the guidelines, conduct performance validation of the reagents, then perform NIPT test and provide adequate interpretation after mastering the clinical performance sufficiently.

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Three cases with age-related cerebral small vessel disease and normal pressure hydrocephalus in the Department of Neurology of Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively reviewed. All the patients exhibited gait disturbance, cognitive impairment and urinary incontinence. Meanwhile, the Craniocerebral imaging demonstrated cerebral small vessel disease and communicating hydrocephalus. The cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 levels decreased, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes were ε3/ε4,ε3/ε3,ε2/ε3, respectively. After treatment in an all-cause individualized manner, the symptoms of 3 patients were stable or improved.

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Bedside hypertonic saline-contrast electrical impedance tomography (EIT) method for lung perfusion evaluation has several advantages of bedside, simple, noninvasive and radiation-free. For a long time, EIT perfusion image of hypertonic saline was mostly limited to animal experiments, and related clinical research is in the ascendant. This technical specification for clinical application is reached based on our previous researches, review of literatures in this field. The purpose of this technical specification is to facilitate the unified and standardized use of hypertonic saline-contrast EIT technology for regional lung perfusion, to evaluate the safety and quality control of the technology, and to unify the results.

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The clinical and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) data of 8 cases of fungal spondylitis were retrospectively enrolled in the study, and the typical MRI findings were mainly discussed. The results released that fungal spondylitis should be suspected when the infection spreads along paraspinal ligament, and vertebral lesions show jumping discontinuous distribution. A blurred and incomplete outline of endplate on T1 weighted imaging sequence, loss of hyperintensity of the vertebral body, and banded like hypointensity under endplate on T2 weighted imaging sequence, indicate fungal spondylitis. These features contribute to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fungal spondylitis.

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Liver is one of the most common metastatic site of advanced gastric cancer. Surgical resection is one of the key component of multidisciplinary treatment for gastric cancer liver metastasis. Curative-intent surgery rather than reductive surgery could improve prognosis for gastric cancer liver metastasis. Patients qualified for curative-intent surgery is highly selected. Chinese Type for Gastric Cancer Liver Metastasis provide therapeutic guidance. In order to improve patient’s survival, it is necessary to combine target therapy and immunotherapy to increase resection rate.

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Objective: To investigate the risk factors and prognostic impact of massive introperative blood loss in posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Methods: Clinical data were collected of 1 896 AIS patients who underwent PSF surgery under general anesthesia in Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School from November 2010 to October 2019 and retrospectively analyzed. According to the volume of intraoperative blood loss, the patients were divided into the massive introperative blood loss group [estimated blood loss (EBL)/estimated blood volume (EBV)≥30%] and the non-massive introperative blood loss group (EBL/EBV<30%). The perioperative parameters between the two groups were compared, single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors related to massive introperative blood loss in PSF surgery. Results: A total of 1 896 AIS patients who underwent PSF surgery were included in the study. There were 298 males and 1 598 females, with an age of (14.5±1.7) years. Among them, 633 (33%) experienced massive intraoperative blood loss. The factors significantly related to the massive blood loss during PSF surgery in this study are: sex, body mass index(BMI), preoperative blood platelet count (PLT), prothrombin time, international normalized ratio(INR), preoperative Cobb angle, duration of operation, the number of fused levels, the number of screws, thoracoplasty, intraoperative use of tranexamic acid and dexmedetomidine; The independent factors included duration of operation longer than 4 hours(OR=4.311,P<0.001), the number of fused levels to be more than 10(OR=4.044,P<0.001), thoracoplasty (OR=2.174,P=0.019), BMI lower than 18.1 kg/m2(OR=2.094,P<0.001), preoperative PLT less than 186.5×109/L(OR=1.480,P=0.009), preoperative INR larger than 1 (OR=1.531,P=0.003) and preoperative Cobb angle larger than 53°(OR=1.306,P=0.036) ;Intraoperative use of tranexamic acid (OR=0.770, P=0.047) and dexmedetomidine (OR=0.653, P=0.008) are protective factors for massive intraoperative blood loss. In addition, in the massive intraoperative blood loss group, length of postoperative hospital stay (P<0.001), volume of postoperative incision drainage (P<0.001), postoperative allogeneic blood transfusion rate (22.7% vs 14.3%, P<0.001), incidence of postoperative hypoalbuminemia (90.3% vs 80.7%, P<0.001) and the number of rescue opioid analgesic requirements after surgery (P=0.006) were significantly higher than those in the non-massive introperative blood loss group. Conclusions: Longer operation duration, higher number of fusion levels, lower BMI, lower preoperative PLT, higher INR, larger preoperative Cobb angle and intraoperative thoraplasty are independent risk factors for massive intraoperative blood loss in AIS patients undergoing PSF surgery. Intraoperative use of tranexamic acid and dexmedetomidine can reduce the risk of massive blood loss in PSF surgery. Massive intraoperative blood loss significantly affects the patient's prognosis.

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Objective: To evaluate the effect of the pessary treatment on general anxiety disorder in patients with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods: Between December 2018 and January 2020, 213 patients who received the pessary treatment for symptomatic POP in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Accepting the pessary successfully means that the patient keeping the pessary for 2 weeks were satisfied with it and willing to use it afterwards, or means that the patient having changed a new pessary and keeping it for 2 weeks were satisfied with it and willing to use it afterwards. The questionnaire General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) was used to assess the anxiety state of POP patients, including 163 patients who accepted the pessary treatment successfully and 50 patients who failed, before and after the pessary treatment. A score of 10 or more was considered as the moderate or severe anxiety and defined as the anxiety disorder. Patients who accepted the pessary treatment successfully were followed up for 3 months. Results: Before the treatment, the prevalence of anxiety disorders was 20.9% (34 out of 163) for those patients accepting the pessary and that was 20.0% (10 out of 50) for those patients who failed in keeping the pessary, the difference of which were not statistically significant (P=0.896). The difference of demographic data and clinical characteristics between the anxiety disorder group and the non-anxiety disorder group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). After 3 months of the pessary treatment for those patients using the pessary treatment, the prevalence of anxiety disorders dropped to 3.7% (6/163) from 20.9% (P<0.001). The GAD-7 score of patients with anxiety disorders decreased from a median of 16.0 (12.5, 21.0) before the treatment to 1.0 (0, 4.0) after the treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: Around 20% POP patients receiving pessary treatment had the moderate or severe general anxiety disorder. After 3 months of using the pessary treatment, the prevalence of anxiety disorders in POP patients had dropped significantly.

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Objective: To explore the characteristics of esophageal motility and clinical presentation in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients of different age groups. Methods: This was a case-control study. Confirmed GERD patients in the Department of Gastroenterology of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2015 to September 2018 were enrolled and divided into two groups: elderly group (≥60 years old) and young and middle-aged group (<60 years old). Characteristics of gender, disease course, clinical symptoms, esophageal motility, gastroscopic manifestations and esophageal hiatus function of patients in the two groups were analyzed. Results: A total of 250 patients met the inclusion criteria, with 61 patients in elderly group and 189 in young and middle-aged group. There were no significant differences in gender ((male/female: 24/37 vs 78/111, P>0.05) and disease course((4.9±4.2) years vs(4.5±3.8)years, P>0.05) between the two groups. However, there were significant differences in typical symptoms (acid regurgitation and heartburn) and atypical symptoms (chest pain, cough, foreign body sensation in pharynx, etc.) (typical/atypical symptoms: 35/26 vs 146/43, P<0.01) between the two groups. Compared with young and middle-aged group, upper esophageal sphincter (UES) resting pressure was lower ((65±28) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)vs (74±28) mmHg, P<0.05), but the percentage of ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) (78.7%(48/61) vs 65.1%(123/189),P<0.05) and DeMeester score (16.3(6.0,36.3) vs 6.4(2.5,18.0), P<0.05) were higher in elderly group. There were no significant differences in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting pressure and distal contractile integral (DCI) between the two groups. Higher proportion of grade C and D reflux esophagitis,and grade C and D reflux esophagitis complicated with esophageal hiatus dysfunction was observed in elderly group compared with young and middle-aged group (2.04%(8/49) vs 0.65%(1/155); 14.29%(7/49) vs 0(0/155); both P<0.01). Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between UES resting pressure and age(r=-0.145, P<0.05), while there was a positive correlation between the LES length and age (r=0.129, P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared with young and middle-aged GERD patients, the atypical symptoms, lower LES resting pressure, increased incidence of ineffective esophageal motility and acid exposure were more prominent in the elderly. Considering that anti-reflux function was weakened, long-term acid suppressants may be needed in elderly patients.

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Objective: To investigate the role of miR-186 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and its molecular mechanism of miR-186 targeting E-cadherin to inhibit cell proliferation and metastasis of RCC. Methods: A total of 40 RCC samples which were collected in Shanxi Provincial People’s Hospital from January 2015 to January 2019 and four RCC cell lines were measured the expression of miR-186 by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The effect of miR-186 overexpression on the proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis of 786-O cells were detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8), colony formation, wound healing and Transwell assay and flow cytometric analysis. The effect of miR-186 on the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin) was analyzed by Western blot, and the dual luciferase reporter was used to verify the miR-186 targeting E-cadherin. Results: There were 26 males and 14 females with an age of (58.4±9.2) years. miR-186 expression levels decreased significantly in RCC tissues and cells (tissues: 0.005 2±0.000 4 vs 0.015 5±0.001 5, P<0.001; cells: 0.334 3±0.025 1, 0.457 0±0.026 6, 0.229 8±0.011 0, 0.741 1±0.091 0 vs 1.000 0±0.085 2, all P<0.001). The expression of miR-186 had a negative correlation with tumor size (≥4 cm: 0.003 2±0.003 4 vs<4 cm: 0.008 4±0.007 2, P<0.001), TNM staging (≤Ⅱ: 0.007 8±0.005 8 vs>Ⅱ: 0.002 7±0.002 3, P=0.021) and Fuhrman grade (<Ⅱ: 0.008 8±0.006 3 vs ≥Ⅱ: 0.004 6±0.003 0, P<0.001). The overexpression of miR-186 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and metastasis, and induced cell apoptosis. delivered.miR-186 overexpression can retard tumor growth in nude mice. Luciferase assay showed that E-cadherin was a direct target gene of miR-186. Conclusion: miR-186 may affect EMT of RCC and inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of RCC by directly regulating E-cadherin.