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Journal: Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]

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Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of helical tomotherapy using simultaneously integrated boost and simultaneous integrated protection technique in the treatment of unresectable biliary tract cancers. Methods: The data of 23 patients with unresectable biliary tract cancer who received tomotherapy-based hypofractionated radiotherapy at Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Drum Tower Hospital,the Affiliated Drum Tower Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University between February 2015 and October 2017 were analyzed. There were 10 males and 13 females, aged from 40 to 85 years(median:58 years). Pathological type included intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas(n=11), gallbladder cancers(n=6),extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas(n=6). The irradiated sites covered primary tumors and areas of local invasion,including metastatic lymph nodes which were confined to the abdominal or retroperitoneal space. Dose escalation was achieved using simultaneously integrated boost(SIB) technique, and simultaneous integrated protection(SIP)technique was used to protect gastrointestinal tracts and other adjacent organs. Cox regression modal and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to analyze the associations between patients' characteristics and overall survival(OS). Results: The median total radiation dose was 54 Gy(range: 28-72 Gy)and median biologically effective dose(BED)was 74.4 Gy(range: 37.8-115.2 Gy).The median planning target volume(PTV)was 445.79 cm(3)(range:126.02-950.12 cm(3)). Based on the various PTV,patients received 2.4-6.0 Gy/fraction with 8-28 fractions. The local control rate was 65.2% and the median OS was 11.3 months(range:2.1-31.9 months).The most common cause of death was out-field failure and only 3 patients died of in-field failures. The longest survival was 31.9 months. BED≥70 Gy significantly improved OS,compared to BED<70 Gy(16.8 months vs.5.1 months)(HR=0.146, 95%CI:0.028-0.762, P=0.022). No patients developed grade ≥4 toxicities. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy-based hypofractionated radiotherapy is effective and well tolerated for patients with unresectable biliary tract cancer. The dose escalation with higher BED could improve the survival for such patients.

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Objective: To investigate the clinical relevance of prognostic staging according to the AJCC Breast Cancer Staging System, Eighth Edition for evaluation of the prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer. Methods: The clinical data of 293 patients with triple-negative breast cancer who were treated at the Breast Disease Center, Peking University First Hospital, between January 2008 and December 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were female, with age of 53(16) years (M(Q®)). The patients were staged according to the AJCC Breast Cancer Staging System, Eighth Edition. Survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test. The role of clinical staging and prognostic staging in prognostic evaluation was investigated. Results: In all, 293 patients with triple-negative invasive breast cancer with complete clinical data and follow-up data were treated over a 7-year period. The follow-up time was 64.5(32.8) months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 83.9%, and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 84.1%. The results showed that clinical staging and prognostic staging were correlated with the DFS rate and OS rate of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (χ(2) were 15.395 to 50.084,P=0.00). However, these two staging systems yielded different results. The prognostic stage of 91.8%(269/293) patients was higher than that of the original anatomical stage. There were significant differences in disease-free survival rate (χ(2)=22.357,P=0.00) and overall survival rate (χ(2)=50.084, P=0.00) among patients with different clinical stages. There were significant differences in disease-free survival rate (χ(2)=15.395,P=0.00) and overall survival rate (χ(2)=29.187,P=0.00)among patients with different prognostic stages. Conclusions: The prognostic stage according to the AJCC Breast Cancer Staging System, Eighth Edition complements the clinical stage. It has a good predictive value for the prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer.

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Objective: To evaluate the predictive accuracy of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and BRAF V600E mutation in distinguishing papillary thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid nodules. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 93 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma who treated at Department of Thyroid Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, College of Medicine from September 2016 to May 2018. There were 21 males and 72 females with age of (43.2±11.3) years (range: 19 to 67 years). All the patients got the examinations of FNA and BRAF V600E mutation by Amplification Refractory Mutation System, and subsequently underwent thyroid surgeries. The results of cytopathology, frozen section and pathology were collected and analyzed. The predictive accuracy of FNA cytology and BRAF V600E mutation was calculated. Results: In the 93 collected cases, 91 were diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma postoperation, and the accurate predictive rate was 97.8%. Subgroup analysis was performed according to Bethesda System, the predictive rates were: unsatisfactory (Ⅰ) 6/6, benign (Ⅱ) 0/0, atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (Ⅲ) 16/17, follicular neoplasm or suspicious for follicular neoplasm (Ⅳ) 97.2% (35/36), suspicious for malignancy (Ⅴ) 100% (28/28), and malignant (Ⅵ) 6/6, respectively. Conclusion: Thyroid nodules with BRAF V600E mutation can be strongly speculated as papillary thyroid carcinoma.

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Cavernous sinus meningiomas refer to meningiomas primarily originate from the cavernous sinus or meningiomas originate from the anterior clinoid,inner sphenoid ridge and invade into the cavernous sinus.The tumor often invade several structures in the cavernous sinus or parasella region,which makes the resection of tumor a challenge work.The outcomes after surgery are unsatisfying because the low total resection rate and the high recurrence rate.With the development of skull base techniques and surgical approaches,the micro-surgical treatment of the cavernous sinus meningioma is gradually improved.In recent years,new therapies such as stereotactic radiosurgery,molecular targeting treatment,comprehensive treatment are also used to treat cavernous sinus meningioma.In this article,the recent advancements in the treatment of cavernous sinus meningiomas are reviewed.

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In order to provide the clinical guidelines of acute thoracolumbar injury for the Chinese orthopedic surgeons, the Spine Trauma Group of Chinese Association of Orthopedic Surgeons compiled this guideline. The guideline applies to adult patients with acute (less than 3 weeks) thoracolumbar fracture and(or) dislocation with or without spinal cord, cauda equina or nerve root injuries. The Study Group wrote the guideline by setting up questions, determining search words, screening literatures according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, analyzing the included literatures, confirming evidence levels and then providing recommendations. The guideline include 247 literatures, of which 35 articles were in Chinese and 212 articles were in English. The guidelines set up 20 questions divided into 4 sections: pre-hospital care, diagnosis and evaluation, treatment and prevention of complications, which include 39 recommendations.

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In order to standardize the diagnosis and treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS) and to improve the quality of care in dealing with the spectrum of multidisciplinary diseases, the EOS treatment guideline task force from the Chinese Association of Orthopedic Surgeons compiled this guideline. The guideline is based on epidemiological data, evidence-based literature and clinical studies, combined with recent technological advances globally. The task force have discussed and reviewed together, revised constantly and finally finalized this paper. Hopefully, the guideline will be refined in clinical practice to further improve the diagnosis and treatment of EOS in China.

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Objective: To explore preoperative predictive markers for invasive malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm(IPMN). Methods: The retrospective case-controlled study was adopted.Seventy-nine patients who underwent surgery and with pathologically confirmed IPMN from January 2005 to December 2014 at Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University were enrolled.Forty-six patients were male and 33 were female,with an average age of (62.9±8.9)years (range:37-82 years).Tumor sites:56 tumors were located at the head of the pancreas,22 were located at the body and tail of the pancreas,and 1 was located across the whole pancreas.Surgical procedures: 51 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, 22 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy, 4 patients underwent segmental pancreatectomy and 2 patients underwent total pancreatectomy.IPMNs were classified into non-invasive lesions and invasive carcinomas according to the histopathological findings of the tumor.Thirty-two tumors were non-invasive lesions and 47 were invasive carcinomas.The preoperative findings were compared between patients with non-invasive IPMN and patients with invasive carcinoma by univariate analysis using t test and χ(2) test accordingly,and factors with statistically significance were subsequently submitted to multivariate analysis. Results: Univariate analysis showed that tumor size(P=0.022), carcinoembryonic antigen(P=0.012), CA19-9(P=0.011), lymphocytes(P=0.034), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio(P=0.010)and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio(PLR)(P=0.004)were predictive markers with statistical significance.Multivariate analysis showed that CA19-9(P=0.012)and PLR(P=0.025) were independent predictive markers for invasive malignancy in IPMN.The area under curve of the combination factor of CA19-9 and PLR(0.864) was larger than that of CA19-9(0.806) or PLR(0.685) alone, and all the authentic indicators of the combination factor were better than those of each alone. Conclusions: CA19-9 and PLR are independent predictive markers for invasive malignancy in IPMN.The combination of CA19-9 and PLR has improved efficacy than each alone.

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Objective: To investigate the clinical application value of using laminoplasty combine with short-segment pedicle screw fixation in the treatment of cervical spine trauma patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). Methods: Fifty-four cervical spine trauma patients with OPLL from June 2014 to June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed of Department of Spine Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Military Medical University. There were 31 males and 23 females, aging (68.4±4.3) years (rang: 46 to 82 years). All patients had a history of cervical spine trauma, confirmed by imaging examination of OPLL, and there are signs and symptoms related to cervical spinal cord compression. Eighteen patients underwent one-stage laminoplasty combine with short-segment pedicle screw fixation(group A), and 15 patients underwent posterior cervical laminectomy and pedicle screw fixation (group B). Twenty-one patients underwent posterior laminoplasty (C group). According to the range of OPLL and the compression of the spinal cord, the range of laminoplasty was selected. MRI scan was used to evaluated the compression condition of cervical spine and the injury condition of anterior longitudinal ligament injury and other factors that can cause local instability of the cervical spine. Posterior unilateral pedicle screw fixation (two pedicles) were performed in the instability segment. The neurological function of the patients was assessed by the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) Score before surgery, the second day after surgery, 3 months, 1 year and the last follow-up. The cervical spine X-ray films were used to evaluate cervical curvature, cervical spine activity and internal fixation-related complications. Results: The average follow-up time was 18 months (6-30 months). Satisfactory neurological improvement was achieved in all three groups, and no internal fixation-related complications occurred during follow-up. The range of laminoplasty was 22 cases in 4 segments (C(3)-C(6), C(4)-C(7)) and 17 cases in 5 segments (C(3)-C(7)). Unilateral pedicle screw fixation was performed in 11 patients with C(3-4) fixation and 7 patients with C(4-5) fixation. Cervical curvature was basically the same in the three groups after operation and at the last follow-up. No significant changes in cervical curvature and kyphosis were observed during the follow-up period. The overall cervical mobility (C(2)-C(7)) in group A and group C had no significant difference compared with preoperative (P=0.077). The overall mobility of cervical vertebrae in group B was significantly lower than that before surgery (P=0.013). Conclusions: For cervical spine trauma patients with OPLL, laminoplasty combined short-segment pedicle screw fixation can increase cervical segmental stability while extensive decompression of cervical spinal cord compression. At the same time, to some extent, the complications of postoperative axial symptoms caused by posterior cervical laminectomy and pedicle screw fixation were avoided.

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Objective: To analyze the clinical effects of all-inside arthroscopic treatment for the patients of avulsion fracture of tibial origin withⅠdegree supination and external rotation injury according to the Lauge-Hansen classification. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 34 patients (34 feet) who had underwent all-inside arthroscopic for avulsion fracture of tibial origin with Ⅰ degree supination and external rotation injury from September 2015 to September 2017 in Department of Hand and Foot Microsurgery, Xuzhou Central Hospital. There were 20 males and 14 females, aged (24.7±11.3)years (range:14-43 years). The duration from injury to operation was (4.3±2.5) d (range: 6 h-7 d). The pro-operation visual analogue scale(VAS) of pain was 6.8±1.4(range: 4-8). All the patients were treated with the all-inside arthroscopic procedure by using the anterolateral and near-anterolateral portals and the fractures were fixed with cannulated screws. Main outcome measures included the pain, foot appearance, and patients were scored using the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Lesser Toe Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal Scale(AOFAS). Results: Primarily healing of the wound was achieved in all cases without postoperative complications of nerve, vessel and tendon injury. The follow-up period was (16.9±6.6)months(range: 8-24 months). Postoperatively X-ray films showed complete fracture healing at (11.2±2.1)weeks after surgery.At the last follow-up, the ankle movement and appearance were good, and no ankle joint traumatic arthritis were found. The VAS and AOFAS was 0 and 95.7±9.4 respectively. Conclusion: The all-inside arthroscopic treatment of Lauge-Hansen type avulsion fracture of tibial origin with Ⅰ degree supination and external rotation injury is an effective and precise method, with accurately outcomes, precise reduction and minimally postoperative complications.

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Objective: To investigate the influence of different discontinuation time of aspirin and clopidogrel before off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) on postoperative bleeding and blood products transfusion requirement. Methods: Three hundred and fifty-three coronary artery disease patients who underwent OPCABG from January 2017 to January 2018 at Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University were retrospectively analysed. There were 268 males and 85 females, aged (66.0±9.1)years. All patients were divided into three groups: (1) guideline-recommended group: patients who discontinued clopidogrel for >5 days without discontinuing aspirin before surgery; (2) without discontinuing group: patients who discontinued clopidogrel for ≤5 days without discontinuing aspirin before surgery; (3) discontinuing group: patients who discontinued clopidogrel for >5 days with discontinuing aspirin before surgery. Postoperative bleeding recorded as chest tube drainage (CTD) volume and blood products transfusion requirement and perioperative complications were recorded. CTD volumes within 12 hours after surgery between groups were compared by Mann-Whitney U tests, CTD volumes after 12 hours postoperatively were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance and blood products transfusion and complications incidence were compared by χ(2) test or Fisher’s precise test. Results: The 12 hours CTD volumes of guideline-recommended group, without discontinuing group, discontinuing group after surgery were 280(153) ml (M(Q®)), 291(229) ml, 225(161) ml, respectively. There were no significant differences in postoperative 12 hours CTD volumes (P=0.865), red blood cells transfusion incidence (χ(2)=2.626, P=0.149) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion incidence (χ(2)=1.258, P=0.324) between guideline-recommended group and without discontinuing group. However, the 12 hours CTD volumes were significantly higher in guideline-recommended group patients compared with disconutinuing group patients (U=5 247, P=0.002). No significant differences were observed in red blood cells (χ(2)=0.182, P=0.757) and FFP (χ(2)=0.083, P=0.839) transfusion rate between these two groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that when patients began to take antiplatelet drugs (aspirin and clopidogrel) after 12 hours postoperatively, the change of CTD volumes beyond 12 hours after surgery didn’t differ either between guideline-recommended group and without discontinuing group (F=0.019, P=0.941) or between guideline-recommended group and discontinuing group (F=2.447,P=0.113). Besides, the incidence of perioperative arrhythmia was significantly higher in guideline-recommended group patients compared with without discontinuing group patients (4.8% vs. 0, χ(2)=5.073, P=0.038). Conclusions: OPCABG patients who discontinued aspirin before surgery had lower postoperative 12 hours CTD volumes but similar blood products transfusion rate and CTD volumes beyond 12 hours postoperatively compared with patients adhering to the current guideline-recommended protocol. And for patients who discontinued clopidogrel for ≤5 days, postoperative CTD volumes and blood products transfusion requirement were similar but the incidence of perioperative arrhythmia was significantly lower compared with guideline-treated patients.