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Journal: Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]

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The endovascular exclusion is an effective treatment of aortic aneurysm diseases in frail and elderly patients who cannot suffer the open surgery. However, as the key treatment device of this technique, traditional stent-grafts are not suitable to treat complex aortic aneurysm diseases in emergency. The emergence of the fenestrated stent-graft and in-situ fenestration has brought new dawn to the treatment of these patients. This study reviews the advances in complex aortic aneurysms treated by the fenestrated stent-graft and the in-situ fenestration. In addition, the novel concept of the fabric structure designed for “in-situ fenestrated stent-graft” is proposed for the in-situ fenestration technique. It is expected to break through the bottleneck of the present fenestrated stent-grafts. It would be beneficial to the bailout of complex aortic aneurysm diseases and thereby benefitting more patients.

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Structure of biliary system is complex as well as various, making troubles for optimal surgical treatment of biliary disease. Remarkable imaging of biliary system helps surgeon evaluating patients and planning surgeries. There are several methods to obtain accurate anatomical information of biliary system, such as X-ray fluoroscopy, MRI and fluorescence-based imaging. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Combination of multi-model imaging technologies may improve visual result of anatomical information of biliary tract. More resolvable, legible, and sequential imaging technology of biliary system remains further study. This article reviews various cholangiography methods widely used in the clinical setting.

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Odontoid fractures constitute the most common cervical spine fracture in the population aged. The optimal management strategy for odontoid fractures remains controversial, especially in the elderly, because of the high morbidity and mortality with both conservative and operative intervention. This review discusses the management of odontoid fractures among the elderly, with a focus on the various treatment options and their outcomes.

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Extra-articular distal tibial fractures as a result of high-energy damage are often comminuted or displaced, frequently accompanied by severe soft tissue injuries.Poor blood supply and various complications make the treatment more difficult,affecting life quality of the patients.The main goals of the treatment are to abtain a healed,well-aligned fracture,functional range of motion of the ankle joint and minimizing complications.It is generally recommended that surgical treatment be performed in the proper context of local conditions to facilitate early functional exercise.Plate fixation and intramedullary nail fixation are the common options for closed fractures.This article focuses on the two treatment methods and some important auxiliary technologies in both domestic and foreign, hoping to provide some references for clinical treatment.

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To facilitate the progress of the standardization of performing breast-conserving therapy in China, the Chinese Association of Breast Surgery organized the Chinese experts to discuss the latest domestic and international breast surgical treatment guidelines and reached a consensus about breast-conserving surgery of early-stage breast cancer based on the actual clinical situation of China. The contents include recommendations about the indication and contraindications of breast-conserving surgery, preoperative imaging examinations, and standardized techniques of breast-conserving surgery. Meanwhile, the panel also discussed cutting-edges topics that lack of high-level evidence or consensus.

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Artificial intelligence clinical decision-support system is an important direction of artificial intelligence in the medical field. Both international and domestic researchers are exploring the application value of intelligent decision-making system in the field of cancer. But at the same time of the craze, there are still some problems in the intelligent decision-making system. Combining the work of the research groups in this field, this paper explores the current confusions and solutions, and hopes to help clinicians better understand intelligent decision-making. It is believed that with the deepening of the concept and the advancement of technology, intelligent decision-making will become a good help for doctors in the future.

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In recent years, with the improvement of screening and early diagnosis, the overall prognosis of breast cancer patients has been greatly improved in China. Breast reconstruction is an option to improve cosmetic outcomes and quality of life for the patients received mastectomy, this procedure has attracted a lot of attention. The breast reconstruction surgery is recommended by the 2018 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Breast Cancer in patients with appropriate indications. Despite the high proportion of breast reconstruction after mastectomy in western countries, Chinese breast surgeon should objectively understand the differences in breast structure and cultural backgrounds between Chinese and foreign women, and conduct rigorous clinical practice on the basis of calm thinking. In particular, it should be clearly recognized that we have more local advanced and high-risk cases in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Making efforts to improve the overall survival for patients with breast cancer must be the top priority for our surgeon. Breast reconstruction for all patients without identifying the distinction of personal characters and indications should be avoided, and the pursuing of high proportion of clinical data with no consideration of the realities of clinical practice in China should also be avoided. The indication of breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients received mastectomy must be strictly determined by the surgeon.

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Breast conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy are widely used in early breast cancer treatment. Right now, the mode of local regional recurrence (LRR) has significantly changed and the rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and axillary lymph node recurrence are steadily increasing. Due to its relatively low incidence of LRR compared with distant metastasis, inconsistent of pre-recurrence treatment, difficulty in surgical treatment, and few prospective clinical studies, there are rising new challenges for clinical management of LRR patients. In this article, based on new theory of LRR, clinical diagnosis and treatment progress, and our own clinical practice experience for LRR breast cancer patients, we propose that we should make pathological diagnosis and do systemic evaluation for LRR disease, then considering it as a curable disease, and integrating local and systemic comprehensive treatment for LRR patients, thus to improve their disease outcome.

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Downstaging of breast cancer primary lesions and metastatic axillary lymph nodes among patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has raised the new challenges and opportunities on individualized breast cancer surgical treatment. Downstaging of the primary lesion has given patients that were previously deemed inoperable or not suitable for surgery a second chance. While downstaging of the lymph nodes has made it possible for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) to safely replace axillary lymph node dissection. However, the detection rate and false negative rate of early breast cancer SLNB technique in post-NAC patients barely meet the standard of clinical practice. Therefore, it is required that SLNB in post-NAC patients to be carried out by a medical team with advanced imaging equipments and extensive experiences in SLNB. Furthermore, they should be able to precisely evaluate axillary lymph node status before and after NAC as well as mark metastatic lymph node before NAC. Indications of SLNB should be restricted to patients that are downstaged from cN0 to ycN0 or from cN1 to ycN0. Particularly, it is only safe for patients whose axillary lymph node status become negative after NAC to receive SLNB when dual tracer (blue dye and radionuclide), removing more than 2 sentinel lymph nodes and targeted axillary dissection technique are used.

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Objective: To compare the short-term clinical outcomes and cost differences of robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) versus laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP). Methods: The retrospective descriptive study was adopted.The clinical data of 158 patients underwent minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy who were admitted to Fujian Medical University Union Hospital between January 2016 and July 2018 were collected.A 1∶1 matched propensity score (PSM) analysis was performed for the RDP group and the LDP group.Observed indexes included operative time, blood loss, spleen-preserving rate, postoperative hospital stay, morbidity, incidence of pancreatic fistula and hospital costs. T test or rank sum test was used to compare measurement data, χ(2) test or Fisher exact test was used to compare count data. Results: A well-balanced cohort of 41 patients was analyzed.There were 14 males and 27 females in the RDP group, aged (45.2±16.4)years. There were 15 males and 26 females in the LDP group, aged (47.4±14.9) years.The operation time was (209.7±52.9) minutes for the RDP group and (186.5±56.7) minutes for the LDP group (P=0.073). Median blood loss was less in RDP (50(15-175)ml) compared with LDP (100(50-350)ml) (Z=-2.689, P=0.007). Thirty-eight cases of non-malignant diseases were observed in each group and spleen-preserving rate was higher in RDP (76.3%) compared to LDP(44.7%) (χ(2)=7.930, P=0.005).Postoperative hospital stay was similar in the RDP group and the LDP group (RDP: 9.4 days vs. LDP: 10.6 days; P=0.372). The overall morbidity and incidence of pancreatic fistula major complication rates (RDP: 12.2% vs. LDP: 14.6%, P=0.746; RDP: 7.3% vs. LDP: 9.8%, P=1.000) were similar.Total cost of RDP group was higher than that of LDP group ((80 563.7±10 641.8) yuan vs. (57 792.8±8 943.0) yuan, t=4.515, P<0.01). Conclusions: Both RDP and LDP are safe and feasible procedures. RDP is more expensive, but RDP is associated with significantly less blood loss and higher spleen-preserving rate, which is more suitable for the non-malignant diseases of pancreatic body and tail with an expectation of splenic preservation.