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Journal: Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]

22

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of transcystic biliary drainage with nasobiliary drainage during primary closure following laparoscopic choledochotomy. Methods: The clinical data of 106 patients with cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis treated by laparoscopy at Department of General Surgery, Danyang People’s Hospital from May 2014 to June 2017 were analyzed prospectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups by means of random number method: the study group was treated with transcystic biliary drainage, and the control group adopted nasobiliary drainage. The operation time, postoperative drainage volume, postoperative hospital stay and postoperative complications were compared between the 2 groups. Results: All patients in the two groups completed the operation successfully. Compared with nasobiliary drainage, the operation time of transcystic biliary drainage was shortened ((133.9±14.7) minutes vs. (143.3±21.7) minutes, t=-2.617, P<0.05). Postoperative hospital stay ((8.2±1.7) days vs. (7.7±2.5) days), the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant(P>0.05). The quantity of bile drainage was no significant difference in the two groups of patients. There were 1 case of duct obstruction and 2 cases of catheter slippage during transcystic biliary drainage, without causing bile leakage. During nasobiliary drainage, there were 3 cases of catheter obstruction, 1 case of catheter slippage, 2 cases of self extubation, 1 case of bile peritonitis caused by catheter blockage, transferred to laparotomy and T tube drainage. The patients were followed up for 1 month to 17 months, with an average of 8 months. B-ultrasound showed no bile duct stenosis and hepatic function was normal. Conclusions: Transcystic biliary drainage could achieve the same biliary drainage as well as nasobiliary drainage during primary closure following laparoscopic choledochotomy. In addition, transcystic biliary drainage maintain the physiological function of bile duct, it is simple and minimally invasive under certain conditions.

Concepts: Surgery, Statistical significance, Liver, Addition, Hepatology, Bile, Bile duct, Gallstone

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The standardized application of antibacterial agents in the treatment of biliary tract diseases is of great significance.On the basis of international and domestic guidelines and consensuses, combining with the actual situation of Chinese biliary tract infection, Study Group of biliary Tract Surgery in Chinese Society of Surgery of Chinese Medical Association and Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association and Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Surgery organized experts to make recommendations which adopted a problem-oriented approach on the severity grade of biliary tract infection, the protocol of specimen examination, the use of antibiotics, the indication of drug withdrawal, the agents application strategy of drug-resistant bacteria infection and special situation to guide surgeons getting the accurate judgement of the severity of biliary tract infection and the formulation of standard protocols for the use of antibacterial agents on the premise of following the bacteriological and drug resistance monitoring information.

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In the past 20 years,the advancement and breakthrough of applied basic research,the invention and renewal of medical devices,the popularization and improvement of minimally invasive techniques,the development and debate of innovative surgical methods and the establishment of the diagnosis and treatment standard brought the unprecedented development momentum to traditional liver surgery.This article combined the domestic and foreign related literature and the research results of our team. The current status and progress of the application of preoperative evaluation and surgical planning of liver surgery,surgical techniques of liver resection,laparoscopic and robotic techniques in liver surgery,enhanced recovery after surgery and associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy are briefly discussed.

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With the rapid development of liver surgery,minimally invasive techniques have been widely used in liver surgery. Many challenging liver can be performed laparoscopically to decrease the surgical trauma. At the same time,the efficiency and accuracy of liver surgeries have been highly improved by the advanced assisted technology of liver surgery. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current situation of liver surgery as well as the future of liver surgery.

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Blood control technology and determination of hepatectomy plane are the core techniques of liver resection, which not only affect the operative performance, but also affect the prognosis of patients.The concept of pre-control the blood vessels in the hepatic segment which should be resected can effective control of bleeding during hepatectomy.A comprehensive application of the ischemic line guidance, the intraoperative ultrasound, the segmental portal staining, fluorescent staining, the hepatic vein-oriented technique, and three-dimensional technique are helpful to precisely determine the boundary of hepatic segment to be resected and guide the hepatectomy plane.

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Laparoscopic hepatectomy has brought new techniques and concepts to the liver surgery.Compared with the traditional laparotomic resection, the approaches of laparoscopic hepatectomy are quite different and have advantages.In this article, the characteristics, selection and application of various laparoscopic hepatectomy approaches are summarized and described.Different surgical strategies lead to different approaches, and the choice of each approach is not fixed and independent.The safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic hepatectomy can be guaranteed to the greatest extent by reasonable selection and combination of various approaches.

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IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is characterized by biliary strictures and obstructive jaundice.Elevated levels of serum IgG4 and a multifocal IgG4-rich lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of affected organs are also the characteristics of IgG4-SC. Prednisone is recommended in the initial treatment of IgG4-SC. The differential diagnosis between IgG4-SC and cholangiocarcinoma is not easy. Comprehensively collection of medical history, paying attention to other organs involvement, and getting the pathologic diagnosis are important for diagnosis of this disease. In order to prevent misdiagnosis we should learn more about IgG4-SC. On the other hand, if we can not differentiate IgG4-SC and cholangiocarcinoma, operation may be recommended.

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As the concept of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) have been widely promoted and applied in clinical practice,reasonable nutrition intervention strategy has been paid more and more attention. The whole-process nutrition management strategy has been optimized based on the ERAS concept,which mainly includes key points such as pre-operative nutrition screening and nutrition assessment,perioperative nutrition treatment,and post-discharge nutritional support. With more and more research evidences,the ERAS strategy would be more detailed and complete. Further nutrition-related high-quality researches is necessary to provide evidence support,aiming to establish a standardized,ERAS-optimized,whole-process nutrition management pathway.

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Objective: To assess the safety and feasibility of the application of the laparoscopic modality in the perioperative treatment of central liver tumors. Methods: Collecting all the clinical information of a total of 40 patients with central liver tumors who received laparoscopic resection treatment carried out at Department of Hepatological Surgery of People’s Hospital of Hunan Provincial from January 2016 to December 2018 to take a retrospective review. There were 19 males and 21 females.The age was (59.5±14.5) years (range: 15 to 71 years) . There were 26 cases of primary hepatic carcinoma (24 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 2 cases of cholangiocellular carcinoma) , 8 cases of hepatic cavernous hemangioma, 1 case of metastatic hepatic carcinoma, 5 cases of hepatocellular adenoma. The maximum diameter of tumors were (6.2±2.9) cm (range: 2 to 13 cm) . The patient’s information about hepatectomy methods, blocking mode and time of blood flow, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion rate, post-operative hospitalization time, perioperative reoperation and postoperative complications were collected. Results: A total of 40 patients all were treated with laparoscopic surgery. The surgical procedure was as follows: 2 patients received the right hepatic lobectomy (Ⅴ, Ⅵ, Ⅶ and Ⅷ segments) , 2 patients received the left hepatic lobectomy (Ⅱ, III and Ⅳ segments) , 13 patients received mesohepatectomy (Ⅳ, Ⅰ and Ⅷ segments) , 2 patients received left hepatic trisegmentectomy (Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ and Ⅷ segments) , 2 patients received right hepatic trisegmentectomy (Ⅳ, Ⅴ, Ⅵ, Ⅶ and Ⅷ segments) , 7 patients received Ⅷ segmentectomy, 1 patient received Ⅳ segmentectomy, 3 patients received Ⅴ and Ⅷ segmentectomy, 5 patients received hepatic caudate lobe resection (Ⅰ, Ⅸ segments) , and 3 patients received local tumors resection.Pathological results: there were 26 cases of primary hepatic carcinoma (24 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 2 cases of cholangiocellular carcinoma) , 8 cases of hepatic cavernous hemangioma, 1 case of metastatic hepatic carcinoma, 5 cases of hepatocellular adenoma; the pathological reports of all malignant tumor cases all showed negative incisal edge. The operative time was (333±30) minutes (range: 280 to 380 minutes) ; the intraoperative hepatic portal occlusion period was (58±13) minutes (range: 30 to 90 minutes) ; the intraoperative hemorrhage was (173±129) ml (range: 20 to 600 ml) ; the intraoperative blood transfusion rate was 2.5% (1/40) ; the postoperative incidence of bile leakage was 2.5% (1/40) , the hospital discharge of 1 patient with bile leakage was approved after conservative treatments like T pipe decompression and adequate drainage; there was 1 case of abdominal infection and 1 case of pulmonary infection, both of which were discharged from the hospital with conservative treatments; there were no other serious postoperative complications. The postoperative hospital stay was (10.7±2.7) days (range: 6 to 16 days) ; there were no perioperative mortality and reoperation cases. Conclusion: In the centers with abundant laparoscopic hepatectomy experiences, the laparoscopic resection is proved to be safe and feasible in the perioperative treatments of central liver tumors by the highly selective cases, the adequate preoperative assessment and reasonable surgical techniques and approach.

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Objective: To explore the clinical effect and safety of minor liver resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) of Bismuth-Corlette type Ⅲ and Ⅳ. Methods: From May 2007 to May 2017, the clinical data of 108 patients with Bismuth-Corlette type Ⅲ and Ⅳ HC underwent hepatectomy were collected and analyzed retrospectively.There were 56 males and 52 females, aged (57.2±5.3) years (ranged 48-76 years) .Among the 108 cases, there were 51 cases of type Ⅲa, 40 cases of type Ⅲb and 17 cases of type Ⅳ. Small-scale hepatectomy (≤3 hepatectomy) was performed in 70 cases, including 8 cases of 4b segment resection, 28 cases of 4b segment+5 segment resection, and 34 cases of partial 4 segment+partial 7 segment+partial 1 segment resection. Large-scale hepatectomy was performed in 38 cases (>3 segments) , of which 30 cases were treated with 2 segments+3 segments+4 segments+1 segment, and 8 cases were treated with 5 segments+7 segments+8 segments+1 segment. t' test was used to analyze the data which did not conform to the normal distribution, and χ(2) test was used to calculate the incidence of postoperative complications and the 1, 3, and 5-year cumulative overall survival rate. Results: (1) The operation time of minor liver resection group ((180±25)minutes) was shorter than that of major liver resection group ((210±35)minutes) (t'=4.676, P<0.05) , the amount of blooding operation time of minor liver resection group ((310±80)ml) was less than that of major liver resection group ((500±110)ml)in the operation (t'=9.385, P<0.05) , and the difference was statistically significant. (2) The incidence of complications was lower in minor liver resection group and major liver resection group, and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=5.230, P<0.05) . (3) The actual 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 87.1%, 58.4%, 30.0% and 84.2%, 57.9%,31.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in survival rates in two groups in 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates (χ(2)=0.177, P=0.674; χ(2)=0.005, P=0.946; χ(2)=0.029, P=0.865) . Conclusions: Compared to patients with major liver resection, Minor liver resection for selected patients with HC of Bismuth-Corlette Ⅲ and Ⅳaccording to our criteria achieved better long-term outcomes. Chen's biliojejunostomy is a simple, effective and safe method, which can be widely used when there are multiple biliary intestinal anastomosese.