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Journal: Zhonghua nei ke za zhi

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Objective: To evaluate the general level of asthma management in urban areas of China and further promote the national asthma management plan. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional survey was carried out in 30 provinces of China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. It’s a questionnaire-based face-to-face survey which included asthma management using peak flow meter (PFM) and pulmonary function test, medication choice of maintenance therapy and asthma education. Results: A total of 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited including 2 347(60.6%) females and 1 528(39.4%) males. The mean age was (50.7±16.7) years ranging from 14 to 99. Only 10.1%(388/3 837) patients used PFM as monitoring, whereas 62.1%(2 405/3 874) patients underwent pulmonary function test during the past year. There were 57.4%(2 226/3 875) patients treated with inhaled cortical steroid plus long-acting β(2)-agonist combinations (ICS+LABA) as daily medication. 43.3%(1 661/3 836) patients were followed up by physicians. Among this population, 1 362 asthmatic outpatients were recruited, who also took part in the asthma control survey in 2007-2008 in 10 cities. In this subgroup, 17.9%(244/1 360) were tested by PFM and 66.6%(907/1 362) by pulmonary function test during last year. As to the medication, 63.1%(860/1 362) selected ICS+LABA for daily control. There were 50.4%(685/1 359) patients in the follow-up cohort by physicians. Compared to the similar survey conducted in 2007-2008, the proportion of patients with ICS+LABA regimen and follow-up by physicians were markedly higher, while the rate of PFM use did not have significant improvement. Conclusion: Although the present level of asthma management in China is still far from ideal, asthma management has improved compared to 8 years ago. Yet the use of PFM does not significantly improve. Asthma action plan and application of PFM should be further promoted to improve the level of asthma management.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Asthma, Corticosteroid, Management, Spirometry, Peak flow meter, Respiratory therapy

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Objective: To study the inducing factors and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation in China. Methods: Patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation at 29 hospitals in China were retrospectively recruited during 2013-2014. Results: Clinical data of 3 240 asthmatic patients were collected and analyzed including 1 369(42.3%) males and 1 871(57.7%) females. The patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation counted for 2.95% (6 375/215 955) of all patients hospitalized during the same period. The leading six inducing factors, in sequence, were acute upper respiratory tract infection [42.3%(1 370/3 240)], changes of weather [22.8%(738/3 240)], noxious gas [(4.3%(140/3 240), allergy challenges [3.5%(115/3 240)], strenuous exercise [1.8%(57/3 240)], and air pollution [1.5%(49/3 240)]. In older patients, more exacerbations were induced by weather changes, yet less sensitive to allergy challenges. As to middle-aged patients, they were less sensitive to upper respiratory tract infections, however the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In winter more asthma patients were induced by upper respiratory tract infections, while in autumn more patients were induced by weather changes, strenuous exercise and air pollution. In spring and summer more patients were induced by allergy challenges, but the differences failed to achieve statistical significance (P>0.05). In northern cities more patients were induced by upper respiratory infections, whereas in southern cities more by noxious gases. Allergy challenges and air pollution tended to affect more patients in northern cities, but the difference was of no significance (P>0.05). The differences of inducing factors among patients of different gender, with or without a smoking history, and with different exacerbation severity didn’t show any statistical significance. The patients with severe and life-threatening exacerbations counted for 20.1% (652/3 240). The percentage of patients older than 60 years was higher in patients with severe or life-threatening exacerbations than in whose with mild or moderate exacerbations, so did the percentage of male patients, of patients with disease duration longer than 10 years, with smoking history, and with a history of hospitalization or emergency department visits due to asthma exacerbation during the last year. Conclusion: The acute upper respiratory tract infection ranks top among all the inducing factors. Senility, male gender, long duration of disease, smoking history, and a history of frequent hospital visits might be the risk factors for severe or life-threatening asthma exacerbations.

Concepts: Immune system, Statistics, Asthma, Hospital, Statistical significance, Respiratory system, Upper respiratory tract, Upper respiratory tract infection

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Objective: To investigate the demographic characteristics, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of patients with gout in China. Methods: Clinical data of 6 814 patients with gout from 100 hospitals in 27 provinces, municipalities or autonomous regions in China were collected and analyzed. Results: (1) The ratio of male to female in patients with gout was 14.7∶1. The mean age of onset was (48.8±15.1) years old. Mean serum urate level was (526.7±132.3) μmol/L. Patients' education background was of U-shaped distribution; (2) Hypertension was the most common comorbidity [15.8%(1 079/6 814)], then overweight or obesity [51.9%(3 536/6 814)]; (3) Alcohol and high-purine food intake were dominant triggering factors in men. The diagnosis of gout was made after onset in majority of patients with cardinal symptom arthralgia. Most patients had the disease less than 5 years, and the longer the course, the more flares in the previous year of entry; (4) Febuxostat was the mostly used urate-lowering medication. 20.7%(1 412/6 814), 10.8%(739/6 814) and 3.9%(265/6 814) of patients were followed up in 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks after registration, and 18.9%(267/1 412), 29.1%(215/739) and 38.1%(101/265) of them reached the control target of serum urate levels, respectively. After treatment, patients' liver function was not affected, but serum creatinine levels decreased significantly. Conclusions: The proportion of gout patients who reach target serum urate level is very low. Further steps including education and survey need to be carried on.

Concepts: Disease, Function, Medical terms, Obesity, Creatinine, Gout, Medical sign, Uric acid

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Objective: To investigate the common opportunistic infections and the characteristics of peripheral lymphocyte subsets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: From December 2013 to December 2016, peripheral lymphocyte subsets were consecutively detected by flow cytometry in treated SLE patients with or without opportunistic infections (OIs) . The lymphocyte subsets in healthy donors were used as normal control group. Results: A total of 145 treated SLE patients were enrolled including 108 with OIs and 37 without OIs. The common OIs were cytomegalovirus (CMV) diseases (66/108), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP, 16/108), other fungal infections (16/108), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, 15/108) and tuberculosis (14/108). Compared with treated SLE without OIs, total lymphocyte, CD(4+) T, and CD(8+) T lymphocyte counts were significantly reduced in SLE with OIs [1 260 (780, 1 810) cells/μl vs. 565 (399, 1 043) cells/μl, P<0.001; 485 (280, 811) cells/μl vs. 173 (95, 327) cells/μl, P<0.001; 464 (339, 764) cells/μl vs. 265 (158, 424) cells/μl, P=0.003, respectively]. Conclusions: The common OIs in treated SLE patients were CMV diseases, PJP, other fungi, EBV and tuberculosis. OIs are prone to develop in SLE patients with severe lymphocytopenia, especially CD(4+) T cell depletion.

Concepts: AIDS, Opportunistic infection, Infection, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Lupus erythematosus, Immunosuppressive drug

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Objective: To explore the relationship of Crohn’s disease (CD) susceptibility to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) polymorphisms and haplotypes in Han population in Wenzhou city, China. Methods: A total of 310 CD patients and 573 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in our study. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of AhR(rs10249788,rs2158041,rs2066853) were determined by the improved multiple ligase detection reaction technique. Unconditional logistic regression analyses was applied to analyze the allelic and genotypic differences of each SNP between CD patients and controls, as well as their influence on the clinicopathologic characteristics in CD patients. Analyses of linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were performed by Haploview 4.2 software in all study subjects. Results: Compared with the controls, the variant allele (T) and genotype (CT+TT) of (rs2158041) were evidently decreased among CD patients (19.52% vs. 25.04%, P=0.009; 34.19% vs. 44.68%, P=0.003). According to “the Montreal Classification Standards” , CD patients were divided into different subgroups. The variant allele (T) and genotype (CT+TT) of (rs2158041) were significantly lower in patients with terminal ileum CD than in controls (16.79% vs. 25.04%, P=0.005; 28.24% vs. 44.68%, P=0.001). Similar conclusions were also drawn in patients with constricting disease when compared with the controls (15.20% vs. 25.04%, P=0.003; 28.43% vs. 44.68%, P=0.003). The three SNPs above were shown to be in a linkage disequilibrium. Compared with the controls respectively, the frequency of haplotype (CCG) was increased in CD patients (44.73% vs. 39.60%, P=0.039), whereas that of haplotype (CTG) was decreased (18.02% vs. 22.78%, P=0.047). Conclusions: AhR (rs2158041) variation might influence the risk as well as the location and behavior of CD. The haplotype (CCG) possibly increase the risk of CD development, whereas haplotype (CTG) might decrease it.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Genotype, Allele, Genetic genealogy, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, Linkage disequilibrium

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Objective: To explore the genetic characteristics in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE) and analyze the correlation between genotype and phenotype. Methods: The natural history, clinical data and peripheral blood sample were collected in all patients and two healthy members of this ADLTE family. Whole exon sequence (WES) analysis strategy was used to explore the underlying mutations. Possible causative genetic variation was further confirmed by direct PCR and Sanger sequencing. The genotype-phenotype features were compared with previously reported cases. Results: A novel pathogenetic LGI1 frameshift mutation p.T134fs was identified in this study. The clinical phenotype was different from reported. Conclusion: This study reports a pathogenic LGI1 mutation in a Chinese ADLTE family for the first time, which suggests that LGI1 is a new genetic abnormality of ADLTE in Chinese.

Concepts: DNA, Genetics, Mutation, Natural selection, Genotype, Evolution, Temporal lobe, Temporal lobe epilepsy

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Objective: 5-Hydroxytrytamine (5-HT) system was reported to be associated with myocardial infarction (MI) and depression. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of trimetazidine on 5-HT in MI and/or depression rats. Methods: Ninety rats were divided into three groups: trimetazidine, sertraline and saline groups (n=30 in each group), and pretreated with trimetazidine, sertarline, or saline, respectively, by gavage once a day for 4 weeks. Thereafter, each group was further divided into three subgroups: MI subgroup, depression subgroup, and MI+ depression subgroup. Serum 5-HT, platelet 5-HT, 5-HT(2A) receptor (5-HT(2A)R), and serotonin transporter (SERT) were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Similar to sertarline, comparing to saline, trimetazidine treatment increased serum 5-HT [(221±23) pg/ml vs. (176±11) pg/ml; (395±31) pg/ml vs. (195±5) pg/ml; (348±28) pg/ml vs. (183±10) pg/ml], platelet 5-HT [(305±22) pg/ml vs. (130±27) pg/ml; (252±18) pg/ml vs. (175±5) pg/ml; (241±26) pg/ml vs. (181±11) pg/ml], and platelet 5-HT(2A)R levels [(247±13) pg/ml vs. (197±12) pg/ml; (320±13) pg/ml vs. (193±18)pg/ml; (334±17) pg/ml vs. (206±15) pg/ml]), and lowered platelet SERT levels [(248±11) pg/ml vs. (323±36) pg/ml; (188±7) pg/ml vs. (278±20) pg/ml; (170±23) pg/ml vs. (282±22) pg/ml] in MI, depression and MI+ depression subgroups, respectively (all P< 0.05). When compared the effect of trimetazidine and sertarline treatment, serum 5-HT and platelet 5-HT(2A)R in MI group were significantly lower in trimetazidine than in sertraline group (P<0.05), while serum 5-HT and platelet 5-HT, 5-HT(2A)R in depression group rats were significantly higher in trimetazidine than in sertraline group (P<0.05).Interestingly, platelet 5-HT(2A)R in MI+ depression rats was much higher in trimetazidine than in sertraline group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Trimetazidine, a kind of myocardial metabolism agent, could play a role on the regulation of 5-HT, 5-HT(2A)R, and SERT levels in rats with MI and/or depression.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Group, Group theory, Serotonin, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Major depressive disorder, Sertraline, Serotonin transporter

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Five patients with Fanconi anemia who received hematopoietic cell transplantation were retrospectively analyzed. The conditioning regimens included fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and anti-thymocyte globulin. Two patients received both bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells as the source of stem cell grafts from haploidentical matched related donors, while the others received peripheral blood stem cells from unrelated donors. All patients tolerated well and reached hematopoietic reconstitution. One patient died of intracranial infection. During follow-up, 4 patients survived independent of transfusion with full donor chimerism.

Concepts: Stem cell, Bone marrow, Stem cells, Hematology, Organ transplant, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Hematopoietic stem cell, Aplastic anemia

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Objective: To compare the differences in cognitive function and behavioral and psychological symptoms between patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Methods: Thirty-six AD patients and 20 bvFTD patients at mild-to-moderate stage, who were biomarker-confirmed by positron emission tomography (PET), were assessed with a neuropsychological battery and neuropsychiatry inventory (NPI). Cognitive domains, including memory, language, information processing speed and executive function, and behavioral and psychological symptoms were assessed and compared. Results: AD patients had lower scores in immediate recall, delayed recall and recognition than bvFTD patients (all P<0.05); while bvFTD patients had poorer performance in language and executive function than AD patients (all P<0.05). The NPI total score was significantly higher in patients with bvFTD compared with patients with AD (17.5±5.7 vs 9.3±3.5, P<0.05). In respect to the 12 items of NPI, the incidence of agitation and irritability was higher in AD group than in bvFTD group (72.2% vs 35.0%, 55.6% vs 20.0%, all P<0.05); while the incidence of apathy, disinhibition, euphoria, aberrant motor behavior and appetite/eating was higher in bvFTD group than in AD group (65.0% vs 33.3%, 80.0% vs 5.5%, 70.0% vs 5.6%, 40.0% vs 11.1%, 50.0% vs 5.6%, all P<0.05). Conclusion: Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and evaluation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of patients with dementia are helpful in distinguishing AD from bvFTD.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Positron emission tomography, Memory, Cognitive science, Cognitive neuroscience, Neuropsychology

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Objective: To compare the performance of the revision of Atlanta classification (RAC) and determinant-based classification (DBC) in acute pancreatitis. Methods: Consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to a single center from January 2001 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into mild, moderately severe and severe categories based on RAC and were simultaneously classified into mild, moderate, severe and critical grades according to DBC. Disease severity and clinical outcomes were compared between subgroups. The receiver operating curve (ROC) was used to compare the utility of RAC and DBC by calculating the area under curve (AUC). Results: Among 1 120 patients enrolled, organ failure occurred in 343 patients (30.6%) and infected necrosis in 74 patients(6.6%). A total of 63 patients (5.6%) died. Statistically significant difference of disease severity and outcomes was observed between all the subgroups in RAC and DBC (P<0.001). The category of critical acute pancreatitis (with both persistent organ failure and infected necrosis) had the most severe clinical course and the highest mortality (19/31, 61.3%). DBC had a larger AUC (0.73, 95%CI 0.69-0.78) than RAC (0.68, 95%CI 0.65-0.73) in classifying ICU admissions (P=0.031), but both were similar in predicting mortality(P=0.372) and prolonged ICU stay (P=0.266). Conclusions: DBC and RAC perform comparably well in categorizing patients with acute pancreatitis regarding disease severity and clinical outcome. DBC is slightly better than RAC in predicting prolonged hospital stay. Persistent organ failure and infected necrosis are risk factors for poor prognosis and presence of both is associated with the most dismal outcome.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Death, Mathematics, Statistical significance, Receiver operating characteristic, Outcome