SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Zhonghua nei ke za zhi

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To develop a new evidence-based diagnosis, treatment guideline for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China.A multidisciplinary guideline development group was established. The grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system was used to rate the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations. Recommendations were derived from evidence body, the balance of benefits and harmsand patient’s values and preferences.The guideline development group developed 10 recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of RA. The guideline covered the classification criteria, disease activity monitoring and assessing, antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and glucocorticoids with treat-to-target approach of RA.This rheumatoid arthritis guideline was intended to serve as a tool for clinicians and patients for best decisions-making in China.

Concepts: Hospital, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, China, Methotrexate, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, Hydroxychloroquine, Human Development Index

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Asthma exacerbations can do a lot of harm to the patients and consume large amounts of medical resources. This consensus is based on the domestic and foreign guidelines and literatures to standardize the evaluation and management of asthma exacerbations in China. Asthma exacerbations are characterized by a progressive increase in symptoms of shortness of breath, cough, wheezing or chest tightness and progressive decrease in lung function, and usually require modification of treatment. Recognizing risk factors and triggering factors of asthma exacerbations is helpful for the prevention and long-term management. Evaluation of asthma exacerbations is based on symptoms, lung function, and arterial blood gas. Management is stratified according to the severity of disease. Different regimens to treat asthma exacerbations are discussed in this consensus. Glucocorticoids should be used properly. Overuse of antibiotics should be avoided. Management of life-threatening asthma is discussed separately. Special attention should be paid in some special respects, such as asthma during peri-operation period, gestation period, and childhood. Diagnosis and management of complications are also of great significance and are discussed in details.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Asthma, Pneumonia, Heart, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Arterial blood gas, Bronchitis, Respiratory therapy

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(AIDS) is an important public health problem in China. In 2005, the first edition of the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of AIDS was formulated by the AIDS Professional Group of Society of Infectious Diseases of Chinese Medical Association, which was updated twice in 2011 and 2015. The fourth edition of the guidelines in 2018 is revised on the basis of national clinical practice and the latest research studies. The new research progress in opportunistic infections and human immunodeficency virus(HIV) associated cancers, antiretroviral therapy, HIV post-exposure prophylaxis, and prevention of mother to child transmission were updated in these guidelines. In the 2018 edition, pre-exposure prophylaxis is mentioned for the first time. The strategy of whole course management of HIV infection is put forward in the current version, which needs the participation of multidisciplinary team in prophylaxis, early diagnosis, individualized treatment and humanistic care.

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The prevalence of diabetes in China was 10.4%, and the rates of awareness, treatment and glycemic control of diabetes in China were 38.6%, 35.6% and 33.0%, respectively. There are rigorous challenges existing in terms of diabetes prevention and glycemic control, especially in primary medical care. Under the guidance of National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China and Chinese Medical Association, National Office for Primary Diabetes Care has developed this guideline to improve the ability of primary health facilities and provide standardized basic public health and medical services thoughout the country. The guideline is applicable to healthcare providers in primary care for type 2 diabetic patients over 18 years of age. The main contents include basic requirements for management, workflow of health management, diagnosis, treatment, identification and management of diabetic acute complications and chronic complications, referral, and long-term follow-up.

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There are no standard diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in China. The copied international criteria has led to a high rate of missed diagnosis due to issues such as translation and cultural discrepancy. Under the principles of semantic equivalence, content equivalence and performance equivalence, the research group of Alzheimer’s Disease Chinese (ADC) adopted several effective methods, such as two-way translation, content conversion, performance evaluation, etc. to systematically study the cognitive, behavioral, functional, and general assessment techniques in dementia screening and diagnosis, as well as their screening thresholds and diagnostic values. We also established a dementia screening and assessment framework in clinical practice through systematic reviews and group consensus. It has improved the early diagnosis rate of dementia in China, been accepted by home and abroad academic institutions, which is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of dementia.

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Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of the robot-assisted system YunSRobot for remote manipulation endoscopy. Methods: When the master of YunSRobot was installed in the gastroenterology office in Chinese PLA General Hospital, the robot slave and upper gastrointestinal simulation model (Takahashi Lm103, Japan) were installed at the same time in the State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation. Three physicians were trained to operate the master robotics and performed gastroscopy on the simulation model based on network cloud. Each physician performed 3 procedures of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) by YunSRobot using traditional manual endoscopy, on-site operating mode, and remote manipulation mode, respectively. The operating time, lumenal anatomic exposure, man-machine interaction and other parameters were recorded. Results: The number of standard pictures obtained by traditional manual endoscopy group, on-site operating group and remote manipulation group were 39.9±0.3, 39.8±0.4, 39.9±0.3, respectively. The images of all five lesions could be obtained by each operation. The operating time in the duodenum of remote group was longer than that of on-site group, with average time (78.2±16.0)s vs. (68.9±15.8)s (P=0.021) respectively. As to the operating time on other parts or total time, all three groups were comparable. Although there was a mean delay of (572.1±48.5) ms in remote operation group, the operation was still smooth. However, compared with on-site group, the percentage of clear view time in the duodenum was significantly shortened in remote group: [(77.8±8.2)% vs. (83.9±6.4)%, P=0.024]. Statistically significant difference was detected in percentage of clear view time neither in other sites, nor was in the total operating time between two groups. The operating time in each part of remote group was obviously longer than that of manual group as followings, pharyngeal (27.3±4.2) s vs. (9.2±1.3)s (P<0.001), esophageal (29.7±6.4)s vs. (19.3±1.6)s (P=0.004), stomach (56.7±17.0)s vs. (40.3±7.0)s (P=0.003), pylorus (20.2±5.5)s vs. (9.3±1.3)s (P<0.001), duodenum (78.2±16.0)s vs. (29.3±5.6)s (P<0.001). Thus the total operating time was also longer in remote group as (559.0±87.2)s vs. (253.1±16.6)s (P<0.001). The respective time in pharynx, esophagus, stomach, pylorus, duodenum, or the overall time was all longer in remote group than that in manual group. Conclusions: The soft endoscopy robot YunSRobot has satisfactory safety and stability. Remote upper gastrointestinal endoscopy can be completed based on common network and an endoscope simulation model with smooth operation. The inspection time by YunSRobot robot per part and the overall time are longer than those of manual operation on site, still, remote operating time meets the standard of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

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Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of the old “ABC” method [serum pepsinogen(PG) combined with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) IgG antibody] and the new “ABC” method [serum pepsinogen plus gastrin-17(G-17)] in screening gastric cancer and its precancerous condition. Methods: Serum PG, G-17 and Hp-IgG were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 278 subjects. Subjects were grouped according to the criteria of two methods. The gastroscopy and pathological biopsy were gold standard. Results: The positive rate of old “ABC” method was 74.46% (207/278), which was 54.68% of new “ABC” method (151/278). For the diagnosis of gastric cancer, the sensitivity and specificity of the old “ABC” method were 90.74% and 29.46% respectively, with diagnostic coincidence rate 41.37%. The sensitivity and specificity of the new “ABC” method were 92.59% and 54.46% respectively, with diagnostic coincidence rate 61.87%. As to the diagnosis of pre-cancerous state, the sensitivity and specificity of the old “ABC” method were 75.81% and 36.00%, with diagnostic coincidence rate 58.03%. The sensitivity and specificity of the new “ABC” method were 62.10% and 75.00%, with diagnostic coincidence rate 67.86%. Conclusions: Compared with the old “ABC” method, the new “ABC” method has higher sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic coincidence rate for the diagnosis of gastric cancer, yet higher specificity and lower sensitivity for the diagnosis of precancerous conditions.

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Objective: To investigate the clinical features and risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: A total of 1 165 hospitalized patients with chronic liver diseases were enrolled. Among them, 94 patients had chronic hepatitis, while 1 071 patients were diagnosed as cirrhosis. The clinical data, renal and liver function were retrospectively analyzed. AKI was determined according to the criteria proposed by International Club of Ascites. Compared with chronic hepatitis group, the clinical features and risk factors for AKI in patients with cirrhosis were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of AKI in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis were 4.26%(4/94) and 11.11% (119/1 071), respectively. The AKI rates in patients with liver function Child A, B and C were 3.77%(18/377), 10.88% (41/377) and 27.65%(60/217), respectively. The independent risk factors for AKI in cirrhotic patients included infections (OR=5.37, 95%CI 3.24-8.90, P=0.000), acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF, OR=4.55, 95%CI 2.60-7.98, P=0.000) and diabetes (OR=1.70, 95%CI 1.07-2.70, P=0.024). The mortality rate of cirrhotic patients with AKI was 36.97% within 2 months. Moreover, the mortality rates in stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ AKI were 20.31%, 36.00% and 73.33%, respectively. Conclusions: The mortality rate of cirrhotic patients with stage Ⅲ AKI is extremely high. Infections, ACLF and diabetes are the independent risk factors for AKI in patients with cirrhosis.

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Objective: The relationship of venous-to-arterial CO(2) difference(Pv-aCO(2))/arterial-central venous O(2) difference (Ca-vO(2)) ratio, peripheral perfusion index(PI) and lactate clearance(LC) were investigated during resuscitation in septic patients. And, the meaning of the combination PI and Pv-aCO(2)/Ca-vO(2) ratio to interpret incoherence of lactate clear was explored. Methods: The patients with sepsis were prospectively observed, who admitted to critically care medicine department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The hemodynamic parameters, simultaneous arterial and central venous blood gas analysis and PI were obtained at the enrollment (T0) and 8 hours (T8) during resuscitation. The lactate clearance was defined as 8h-LC≥10% and non-lactate clearance was defined as 8h-LC ≤ 10%. Additionally, the patients were divided as three sub-groups according to the PI value at T8: the normalized PI group with PI≥1.4,the mild impaired PI with 1.4

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To investigate the expression of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Xinjiang Uygur and Han nationalities and its prognostic significance. Our data showed that miR-34a expression in Uygur and Han CLL patients was significantly higher than that in their respective healthy controls, while miR-34a levels were similar between Uygur and Han patients. By comparing with known prognostic factors, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that miR-34a was a good predictive factor for the prognosis of CLL (demarcation value was 3.567 6). Survival analysis was further performed according to miR-34a expression level, that low expression of miR-34a translated into poor prognosis.