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Journal: Zhonghua nei ke za zhi

22

Asthma exacerbations can do a lot of harm to the patients and consume large amounts of medical resources. This consensus is based on the domestic and foreign guidelines and literatures to standardize the evaluation and management of asthma exacerbations in China. Asthma exacerbations are characterized by a progressive increase in symptoms of shortness of breath, cough, wheezing or chest tightness and progressive decrease in lung function, and usually require modification of treatment. Recognizing risk factors and triggering factors of asthma exacerbations is helpful for the prevention and long-term management. Evaluation of asthma exacerbations is based on symptoms, lung function, and arterial blood gas. Management is stratified according to the severity of disease. Different regimens to treat asthma exacerbations are discussed in this consensus. Glucocorticoids should be used properly. Overuse of antibiotics should be avoided. Management of life-threatening asthma is discussed separately. Special attention should be paid in some special respects, such as asthma during peri-operation period, gestation period, and childhood. Diagnosis and management of complications are also of great significance and are discussed in details.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Asthma, Pneumonia, Heart, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Arterial blood gas, Bronchitis, Respiratory therapy

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Gastric cancer has become one of the important public health issues endangering people’s health in China. Currently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been used as the curative procedure of early gastric cancer without lymph node metastasis. Endoscopic resection has several advantages, including less invasiveness, permitting en bloc, histologically completed resection, accurate pathological diagnosis, lower recurrent rate and rapid recovery. The perioperative period of ESD is the time of a patient’s endoscopic operative procedure; more specifically, it includes ward admission, indication, contraindication, preoperative preparation, endoscopic operation, postoperative complications, recovery and the disposal of specimen. The aim of this guideline is to assist endoscopists in providing standardized operation to patients, as well as managing perioperative complications.

Concepts: Public health, Epidemiology, Cancer, Metastasis, Medical terms, Lymph node, Management, Stomach cancer

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Xuezhikang, a Chinese traditional medicine, contains natural statin and is effective on dyslipidemia by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis. Xuezhikang therapy for 8 weeks in patients with hyperlipidemia reduced total cholesterol (TC) by 23%, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 28.5% and triglyceride(TG) by 36.5%, and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by 19.6%, respectively. Data from China Coronary Secondary Prevention Study (CCSPS) showed that treatment with Xuezhikang lowered the risks of major coronary events, death from coronary heart disease, and all cause death in patients with myocardial infarction, indicating that Xuezhikang can be used in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Heart, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Atheroma, High-density lipoprotein

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Objective: To study the clinical effect of probiotics in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: A total of 200 patients with NAFLD were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (routine treatment group) and combined treatment group A, B and C. Each group had equal patients. The control group received orally polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules; whereas combined group A, B and C were given orally the live “combined Bifidobacterium Lactobacillus and Enterococcus powder” , “two live combined Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus” , and the both probiotics respectively. The duration of treatment was 1 month. Laboratory parameters were evaluated before treatment and thirtieth day after treatment, including cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), fasting blood glucose (FPG), serum high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-APN) and serum TNFα. Meanwhile the faece sample was collected for routine test and bacterial culture. Liver ultrasound scan was done in all patients. Results: In terms of blood lipids and blood glucose, each group improved after treatment with significant differences (P<0.05) except for HDL-C. As for liver function, serum ALT and AST decreased after treatment in each group; especially in combined group C which were lower than those of control group [(33.7±7.6) U/L vs. (45.0±8.5) U/L; (22.0±1.6) U/L vs. (29.4±3.7) U/L; P<0.05]. TNFα levels decreased after treatment in each group, in addition the values in combined group C was significantly lower than that of control group[(0.51±0.27) µg/L vs. (0.82±0.28) µg/L, P<0.05]. Serum HMW-APN increased after treatment in each group, and the HMW-APN in combined C group was significantly higher than that of control group[(9.28±3.72) µg/L vs. (7.87±3.96)µg/L, P<0.05]. (5) After treatment, all groups showed improvement of fatty liver by ultrasound, but the difference between groups was not statistically significant. (6) Compared with before treatment, fecal flora in combined groups was all reduced (P<0.01), but it was comparable before and after treatment in control group. Conclusions: Probiotics improve intestinal microecological system in NAFLD patients via inhibiting TNFα and enhancing adiponectin, possibly resulting in regulating blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and protecting liver injury from NAFLD.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, Obesity, Low-density lipoprotein, High-density lipoprotein, Liver function tests, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Fatty liver

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Objective: To study relevant factors that influence psychological resilience in patients with ulcerative colitis(UC), especially the role of perceived stress and personality. Methods: Patients with UC were recruited from January 2015 to December 2016 in the First Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Education levels, income, duration of disease, Mayo score and disease phenotype according to Montreal classification were collected. Resilience was measured using Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Perceived stress was measured by perceived stress scale (PSS). Personality was evaluated using Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). Univariate analyses were conducted to determine the correlation of variables with resilience and thereafter those statistically significant were reanalyzed via a multivariate regression model. Results: A total of 188 patients with UC were finally recruited. Univariate analyses demonstrated resilience was inversely associated with perceived stress, Mayo score and neuroticism. Extraversion, income, college education were positively related to resilience. However, multivariate analyses revealed that perceived stress(OR=0.901, 95%CI 0.833-0.975), extraversion (OR=1.257, 95%CI 1.087-1.454), neuroticism (OR=0.818, 95%CI 0.679-0.985), Mayo score (OR=0.856, 95%CI 0.742-0.988) and income (OR=6.411, 95%CI 2.136-9.244) were significantly related to resilience. Conclusions: Resilience of UC patients is not only associated with disease activity, but also with personality, perceived stress and income.

Concepts: Psychology, Regression analysis, Statistics, Multivariate statistics, Ulcerative colitis, Neuroticism, Hans Eysenck, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

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Objective: To clarify the clinical features of monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL) with minor endoscopic abnormalities. Methods: The clinical data of 6 patients with MEITL characterized by minor endoscopic abnormalities in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2012 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, including clinical manifestations, endoscopic, pathological features, medications and prognosis. Results: Five out of 6 patients were male, with an average age of 61.2 years old. The median disease duration was 4.5 months. All patients initially presented with diarrhea without specific findings for serologic testing. CT enterography showed continuous intestinal lesions, including symmetric thickening of the bowel wall, abnormal hyperenhancement of mucosal surface and lymphadenopathy. Endoscopic appearances were only mildly abnormal, including mucosal swelling, atrophy of villus, mosaic sign and shallow ulcers. Histopathologic findings revealed massive small to medium sized T lymphocytes infiltration with positive expression of CD(3) and CD(8). Chemotherapy and palliative treatment were administrated after diagnosis. Conclusions: Clinical presentations of MEITL are non-specific with minor endoscopic abnormalities. Therefore, biopsy is indispensable for patients with a relatively normal endoscopic result.

Concepts: Cancer, Pathology, Chemotherapy, Natural killer cell, B cell, Ulcerative colitis, Lymphoma, Thymus

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Objective: To analyze the clinical features and risk factors of cirrhotic patients complicated with infections. Methods: The clinical and laboratory characteristics of cirrhotic patients complicated with infections hospitalized from April 2014 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Relevant risk factors for infection and mortality were explored. Results: The overall incidence of infections was 17.6% in 1 670 hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Among the recruited 208 patients in this study, alcoholic, viral hepatitis B or C and autoimmune liver diseases accounted for 29.8% (62/208), 26.0% (54/208), and 22.1% (46/208), respectively. The most common infection site was respiratory tract (70.2%), followed by urinary tract, intestinal and intra-abdomen. Forty-six pathogens were isolated from 32 patients, including 22 (47.8%) Gram negative bacteria, 16 (34.8%) Gram positive bacteria and 2(4.3%) mycobacterium tuberculosis, 5 (10.9%) fungi and 1 (2.2%) mycoplasma. The mortality in patients with nosocomial infections (16.7%,7/42) was higher than that in patients with community-acquired infections (6.0%,10/166, P=0.025). All 17 deaths occurred in decompensated cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that hepatic encephalopathy and prothrombin time were independent risk factors of mortality. Conclusions: Patients with decompensated cirrhosis are more susceptible to infections. Hepatic encephalopathy and prothrombin time are independent risk factors for death.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Gram-negative bacteria, Hepatic encephalopathy, Gram-positive bacteria, Bacteriology

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Objective: To evaluate the value of microcirculation and oxygen metabolism evaluation (MicrOME) in acute kidney injury(AKI) evaluation in patients with septic shock after resuscitation. Methods: Consecutive patients with septic shock after resuscitation and mechanical ventilation were enrolled from October 2016 to February 2017 in ICU at Peking Union Medical College Hospital.Patients were divided into 3 groups based on 10 min transcutaneous oxygen challenge test transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen(PtcO(2))and venoarterial pressure of carbon dioxide difference (Pv-aCO(2)) /arteriovenous O(2) content difference (Ca-vO(2)) by blood gas analysis, i.e. group A [ΔPtcO(2)>66 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) and Pv-aCO(2)/Ca-vO(2)≤1.23], group B (ΔPtcO(2)≤66 mmHg), group C (ΔPtcO(2)>66 mmHg and Pv-aCO(2)/Ca-vO(2)>1.23). Heart rate,mean arterial pressure,central venous pressure,noradrenaline dose,lactate,Pv-aCO(2),Ca-vO(2), lactate clearance, central venous oxygen saturation(ScvO(2)) and liquid equilibrium were assessed after resuscitation.AKI staging based on Kidney Disease Global Improving Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline was analyzed. The predictive value of lactate, ScvO(2), Pv-aCO(2)/Ca-vO(2) to progression of AKI after resuscitation was determined using receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve analysis. Results: A total of 49 septic shock patients were enrolled including 30 males and 19 females with mean age of (61.10±17.10)years old.There were 19 patients in group A,21 patients in group B, and 9 patients in group C. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ score was 20.92±7.19 and sequential organ failure assessment score 12.02±3.28. There were 4 patients with AKI and 1 progressed in group A, 11 patients with AKI and 2 progressed in group B, 6 patients with AKI and 4 progressed in group C. The cutoff value of Pv-aCO(2)/Ca-vO(2) was equal or more than 2.20 for predicting progression of AKI, resulting in a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 73.8%. Conclusion: MicrOME is a significant parameter to predict the progression of AKI in patients with septic shock after resuscitation. Pv-aCO(2)/Ca-vO(2) is also a good predictive factor.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Mechanical ventilation, Arterial blood gas

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Objective: To investigate the clinical features of Takayasu’s arteritis (TAK) with glomerulonephropathy and to improve physicians' understanding of this complication in patients with TAK. Methods: Clinical data were retrospectively collected including manifestations, laboratory tests, image findings and treatment of 8 patients diagnosed as Takayasu’s arteritis with glomerulonephropathy from January 2002 to January 2017 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Results: Glomerulonephropathy was confirmed based on percutaneous renal biopsy. There were 6 women and 2 men. The median onset age and median disease duration were 24 (18-37) years and 42 (3-360) months, respectively. Five patients had hypertension. The 24 hour urinary protein was 0.18-14.91 g. Red blood cells and casts in urine were tested among 4 and 2 patients, respectively. Three patients had renal artery stenosis. Three patients demonstrated mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, two with IgA nephropathy, two with minimal change disease and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Seven patients received glucocorticoid combined with cyclophosphamide therapy (glucocorticoid 40-60 mg/d, prednisone or equivalent; cyclophosphamide 0.4 g/week iv. or cyclophosphamide 0.1 g/d po.). Uninary blood cells removed and 24 hour urinary protein decreased from 1.65 g to 0.90 g after treatment for 12 months in one patient. The other 7 patients were missing. Conclusion: Glomerulonephropathy is occasionally observed among TAK patients. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis is the most common pathological subtype. Glucocorticoid combined with cyclophosphamide therapy could be an optional therapy for Takayasu’s arteritis with glomerulonephropathy.

Concepts: Kidney, Cell nucleus, Blood, Red blood cell, Urinary system, Ureter, Kidney diseases, Renal artery stenosis

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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is a hereditary syndrome. Here, two different RET proto-oncogen mutation were identified from family members of two MEN2A pedigrees by genetic screening. One RET mutations were found at codons 1893 and 1895 in exon 11 (1893-1895delCGA) from pedigree 1, which is a novel mutation, the other occurs at codon 634 (Cys634Arg) in exon 11 from pedigree 2. However, the clinical characteristics were similar in the patients of the two pedigrees. All the patients were in middle-age at onset. Most of them were firstly diagnosed with bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma with different degrees of thyroid abnormalities (elevated serum calcitonin with or without thyroid mass, or had been diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma). Some family members were with elevated serum parathyroid hormone but with no other evidences for hyperparathyroidism.

Concepts: DNA, Calcitonin, Cancer, Parathyroid hormone, Parathyroid gland, Multiple endocrine neoplasia, Medullary thyroid cancer, Pheochromocytoma