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Journal: Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer

167

The cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABPII) and epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) both serving as the transport protein of retinoic acid (RA), through RA signal transduction pathway, commit the cell to opposite fate, apoptosis or survival. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of CRABPII and E-FABP and significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and their lymph node metastases with tissue microarray technique.

Concepts: Protein, Cancer, Metastasis, Signal transduction, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Lymph node, Hormone

154

The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement is a driver gene of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Positive expression of ALK gene rearrangement has been considered a molecular subtype of NSCLC, that there are special pathological characteristics and clinical prognosis. Furthermore, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor has demonstrated high effective in treating ALK positive NSCLC patients. Thus making molecular diagnostic testing for ALK expression is an important step in the process of pathological diagnosis. Currently, many detecting ALK expression assays are available or in development, clinical pathologists focus on how to choose the best method for routine diagnosis of lung cancer. There are many domestic and international authoritative guidelines recommend ALK detecting assays, technological process and relative standard. In the current review, we summarize the diagnostic tests available and the special sample types that could be used to identify patients with ALK-positive NSCLC.

Concepts: Gene expression, Cancer, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Pathology, Prognosis, Medical test, Anaplastic large cell lymphoma

2

Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor in clinic. Morbidity and mortality are the first place in cancer, which seriously threaten the health of human beings. Due to the lack of effective and specific screening methods, most patients were found already at an advanced stage, and often combined with bone, brain, liver, adrenal and other parts of the metastasis. Symptoms of patient resulted from the primary tumor, metastatic spread, or paraneoplastic syndrome commonly cause the medical attention. For the syndrome related to the distant metastatic spread as the first manifestation, diagnosis would be a challenge. Retinal metastasis is very rare as the first symptom of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. This paper reviewed a case, in which a patient developed the retinal metastasis as the inital presentation. After systemic evaluation, our patient was managed in multidisciplinary treatments, including surgery and chemotherapy. Now, the patient has a good short-term prognosis and is still in fellow-up condition. Later, we summarized the characteristics of the diagnosis and treatment of this case and provided experience for clinicians. At the same time, reviewing the relevant literature on tumor metastasis provides a window for our understanding of the rare manifestations of lung cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Prostate cancer, Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Small cell carcinoma

1

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a poorly differentiated high-grade neuroendocrine tumor, accounts for approximately 14% of all lung cancers. SCLC is characterized by rapid growth, early metastasis without effective treatments after recurrence. It is urgently need to improve the therapy of patients with SCLC. In recent years Tumor immunotherapy has shown promising efficacy, especially in immune checkpoints including inhibitors programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). These immune checkpoint inhibitors of the researches are changing the clinical practice of many kinds of solid tumor. SCLC is a potential ideal type of tumor immunotherapy for tobacco exposure and the highest mutational load. In this report, the authors review the current state of the immunotherapy in SCLC, to discussing the problems, challenge and application development prospect.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Tobacco smoking, Small cell carcinoma

1

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the world, with more than 1 million deaths per year, accounting for about one fifth of all cancer deaths worldwide. Over the past years, lung cancer treatment has been based on surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy, but the improvement is not very perfect. Therefore, it has become clear that additional therapeutic strategies are urgently required to provide an improved survival benefit for patients. In recent years, Hippo signaling pathway has become a popular direction in the field of cancer research. When the Hippo pathway is active, the core Hippo kinase, such as MST/MOB and LATS1/2, inhibit the two transcriptional co-activators, YAP/TAZ. And YAP/TAZ are phosphorylated and sequestered in the cytoplasm. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway drives multiple aspects of lung tumor initiation and progression. Moreover, the potential value of this pathway is getting more and more prevalent in clinical application. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanism and the core components, upstream or downstream targets of Hippo signaling pathway which contribute the formation of lung cancer and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeted strategies in lung cancer. Additionally, we highlight the prospect of research on Hippo signaling pathway in the future.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Cancer, Oncology, Lung cancer, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Therapy

1

Lung cancer is becoming an increasing threat to Chinese residents and its incidence continues to rise while the treatment effect is far from satisfactory. Hence, it is essential to improve the level of early diagnosis, treatment, prognosis in lung cancer. An epigenetic trait is a stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence. The epigenetic studies, such as DNA methylation and histone methylation, are progressing rapidly in oncology research. A comprehensive understanding of its development status and existing problems is of great significance for the future research and the implementation of precision medicine. Herein, we aim to outline the progress of DNA methylation and histone methylation modification in lung cancer and make a prospect for the future research.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Cancer, Histone, Epigenetics, Lung cancer, DNA methylation, Methylation

1

Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is a new concept which was introduced to the 2011 The International Association for the Study of Cancer (IASLC)/ American Thoracic Society (ATS)/ European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma firstly and an important supplement of The 2015 World Health Organization Classification of Lung Tumors. Because AIS is at an early stage of development of lung adenocarcinoma, the deepening understanding of its pathology, differential diagnosis, treatment strategies, has an important significance for the improvement of the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This review will provide a systematic review of the main progress of occurrence and development, pathological characteristics, differential diagnosis and treatment strategy of AIS, in order to provide theoretical basis for the further research of AIS.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Medical terms, Pathology, Medical diagnosis, Differential diagnosis, World Health Organization

1

Recently, immune-oncologic therapy advanced rapidly and has been defined as another option, following surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy, for treatment of malignant diseases. To date, several immune checkpoint inhibitors and compounds have been approved to treat various of malignant diseases with efficiency. Meanwhile, more and more potential therapeutic targets in processes of the cancer immunity have been noticed. We aimed to summarize the research status and clinical prospects of novel immune-oncologic treatment agencies targeted to different steps of the cancer-immunity cycle.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Cancer, Oncology, Cure, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Targeted therapy

1

The lungs are the most common sites of metastases from non-pulmonary malignancies. On the other hand, endobronchial metastases are rare. Various tumors have been associated with endobronchial metastasis, most commonly renal, breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced rectal cancerwith lung metastasis is common. However, endobronchial metastasis without lung metastasis of rectal cancer is rare, and easily misdiagnosed. We report one case of postoperative rectal cancer with endobronchial, pleuralcavity, pericardial cavitymetastasis, giving the comprehensive treatment of bronchial stentimplantation, chemotherapy, targeted drugs and remission. The process of diagnosis and treatmentis relatively complex, therefore it has a certain clinical reference value.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Chemotherapy, Prostate cancer, Colorectal cancer

0

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) mutation was closely related to the invasion and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma and the biological axis of CXCR4/CXCL12 (chemokine receptor 4/chemokine ligand 12) played an important role in the organ-specific metastasis of the tumor. It was a question surrounding whether there is interaction between them in the process of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. To investigate the potential molecular mechanisms of EGFR over-expression and EFGR-mutations effects on cell proliferation, migration and invasion, we constructed EGFR over-expression and three EFGR-mutant human lung adenocarcinoma H1299 cell sublines.