A meeting on Contemporary Topics in Zebrafish Husbandry and Care was held in the United Kingdom in 2014, with the aim of providing a discussion forum for researchers, animal technologists, and veterinarians from academia and industry to share good practice and exchange ideas. Presentation topics included protocols for optimal larval rearing, implementing the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) in large-scale colony management, and environmental enrichment. The audience also participated in a survey of current practice relating to practical husbandry, cryopreservation, and the provision of enrichment.
The electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, the only species of its genus, has a wide distribution in the Amazon and Orinoco drainages. There is little previous information regarding the population variation in E. electricus, with only basic karyotype data from two populations (Amazon and Araguaia Rivers). Karyotypic description and analysis of CO1 barcode sequences were performed for E. electricus from three localities (Caripetuba, Irituia, and Maicuru Rivers). All samples share the 2n=52 (42 m-sm [meta-submetacentric] +10 st-a [subtelo-acrocentric]) with previously studied material. However, the Maicuru River samples differ from the other populations, as they have B chromosomes. The distribution of noncentromeric constitutive heterochromatin between samples is relatively divergent. All samples analyzed present the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) located in a single chromosome pair. In the samples from Caripetuba, NORs were colocalized with a heterochromatin block, whereas the NOR was flanked by heterochromatin in Maicuru River samples and pericentromeric heterochromatin adjacent NOR was found in Irituia River samples. Alignment of CO1 barcode sequences indicated no significant differentiation between the samples analyzed. Results suggest that karyotypic differences between samples from the Caripetuba, Irituia, and Amazon Rivers represent chromosome polymorphisms. However, differences between the samples from the Maicuru and Araguaia Rivers and the remaining populations could represent interpopulation differentiation, which has not had time to accrue divergence at the CO1 gene level.
In the past two decades, zebrafish (Danio rerio)-based research has contributed to significant scientific advances. Still, husbandry and health programs did not evolve at the same pace, as evidenced by the absence of general guidelines. Health monitoring is essential to animal welfare, to permit animal exchanges across facilities, to contribute to robust experimental results, and for data reproducibility. In this study, we report a health program implemented in a zebrafish research facility to prevent, monitor, and control pathogen, and disease dissemination. This program includes quarantine, routine health screening of sentinels, and nonroutine screenings of retired animals and sick/moribund individuals. An extensive list of clinical signs, lesions, and pathogens was monitored based on: daily observation of fish, necropsy, histology, and bacterial culture. The results indicate that the combined analysis of sentinels with the evaluation of sick/moribund animals enables a comprehensive description not only of pathogen prevalence but also of clinical and histopathologic lesions of resident animals. The establishment of a quarantine program revealed to be effective in the reduction of Pseudoloma neurophilia frequency in the main aquaria room. Finally, characterization of the colony health status based on this multiapproach program shows a low prevalence of lesions and pathogens in the facility.
Mycobacteriosis is the second most common infectious disease in zebrafish research colonies, and most often this is caused by Mycobacterium chelonae. The infection is characterized by multiple granulomas in the kidney, coelomic cavity, particularly the ovary. However, most fish still appear clinically normal. Developmental genetics remain a primary area of research with the zebrafish model, and hence, an important use of adult zebrafish is as brood fish to produce embryos. We investigated the effects of experimentally induced M. chelonae infections on fecundity. A total of 480 5D wild-type zebrafish were divided into four groups: controls, males infected, females infected, and both sexes. Exposed fish developed high prevalence of infection, including many females with ovarian infections. Fish were then first subjected to four separate group spawns with four replicate tanks/group. Then, a third of the fish were subjected to pairwise spawns, representing 20 pairs/group, and then the pairs were evaluated by histopathology. Overall, the group and pairwise spawns resulted numerous eggs and viable embryos. However, we found no statistical correlations between infection status and number of eggs or viability. In contrast to Egg Associated Inflammation and Fibroplasia, lesions in infected ovaries were more localized, with large regions of the ovary appearing normal.
During retinal development, a variety of different types of neurons are produced. Understanding how each of these types of retinal nerve cells is generated is important from a developmental biology perspective. It is equally important if one is interested in how to regenerate cells after an injury or a disease. To gain more insight into how retinal neurons develop in the zebrafish, we performed single-cell mRNA profiling and in situ hybridizations (ISHs) on retinal sections and whole-mount zebrafish. Through the series of ISHs, designed and performed solely by undergraduate students in the laboratory, we were able to retrospectively identify our single-cell mRNA profiles as most likely coming from developing amacrine cells. Further analysis of these profiles will reveal genes that can be mutated using genome editing techniques. Together these studies increase our knowledge of the genes driving development of different cell types in the zebrafish retina.
Quality control (QC) is essential for reproducible and efficient functioning of germplasm repositories. However, many biomedical fish models present significant QC challenges due to small body sizes (<5 cm) and miniscule sperm volumes (<5 μL). Using minimal volumes of sperm, we used Zebrafish to evaluate common QC endpoints as surrogates for fertilization success along sequential steps of cryopreservation. First, concentrations of calibration bead suspensions were evaluated with a Makler(®) counting chamber by using different sample volumes and mixing methods. For sperm analysis, samples were initially diluted at a 1:30 ratio with Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS). Motility was evaluated by using different ratios of sperm and activation medium, and membrane integrity was analyzed with flow cytometry at different concentrations. Concentration and sperm motility could be confidently estimated by using volumes as small as 1 μL, whereas membrane integrity required a minimum of 2 μL (at 1 × 10(6) cells/mL). Thus, <5 μL of sperm suspension (after dilution to 30-150 μL with HBSS) was required to evaluate sperm quality by using three endpoints. Sperm quality assessment using a combination of complementary endpoints enhances QC efforts during cryopreservation, increasing reliability and reproducibility, and reducing waste of time and resources.
Some species of Characiformes are known for their high economic value, such as Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus mesopotamicus, and are used in aquaculture programs to generate hybrid tambacu (interbreeding of C. macropomum females and P. mesopotamicus males). The present work aimed to investigate the location of the Rex3 and Rex6 transposable elements in the hybrid and in the species, in addition to checking the genomic organization of the 18S and 5S rDNA in tambacu. The diploid number found for the hybrid was equal to 54 chromosomes, with heterochromatic blocks distributed mainly in the centromeric portions. The chromosomal location of the mobile elements Rex3 and Rex6 in C. macropomum, P. mesopotamicus, and in the hybrid between these species enabled knowledge expansion and the generation of data on such mobile elements. In addition, the location of such elements is not related to the distribution of ribosomal DNA sites. The mapping of the 18S rDNA was shown to be effective in cytogenetic identification of the hybrid tambacu, allowing for differentiation from the parent species and from the hybrid between C. macropomum and the other species from Piaractus (P. brachypomus).
Recently, the evaluation of spontaneous tail movement (STM) in zebrafish embryos has been proposed as a possible neurotoxicity marker in studies on behavioral changes due to chemical exposure. Currently, automated STM quantification can only be performed using high-cost commercial software. We have developed a simple and reliable MATLAB® script called ZebraSTM that allows the automatic analysis of STM in multiple zebrafish embryos.
Zebrafish is a model species with a high variability of feeding regimes among fish facilities. The use of live feeds for early life stages is a common practice, and few studies have focused early weaning into microdiets. The lack of standardized feeding protocols among research facilities promotes discrepancies in biological performances, and few studies relate dietary regimes to zebrafish development. The objective of this work was to assess the effect of an early transition into microdiets in zebrafish development by evaluating growth, survival, reproductive performance, and skeletal anomalies. These parameters were assessed in one group exclusively fed on Artemia nauplii and two groups fed on microdiets (commercial and experimental). Results showed that an early weaning with the two microdiets significantly improved zebrafish growth and reproductive performance, while a decrease in incidence of vertebral column anomalies was observed. A high survival was also maintained in fish fed microdiets at an early developmental stage when comparing to exclusive Artemia nauplii feeding. In conclusion, early weaning with high quality microdiets is beneficial for zebrafish growth, reproductive performance, and skeletal development, contributing to the standardization of zebrafish husbandry practices.
Induction of all-male population in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, has potential application in ornamental fish trade. In addition, the sexually dimorphic nature of aggressive behavior exhibited by this species has made it into an emerging model for behavioral studies. Fadrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, which has been used widely in masculinization, has captivated us to use it in this study. Twenty one days postfertilization (dpf), B. splendens fry were subjected to discrete immersion treatment with various concentrations of fadrozole, and eventually, analyses of various socioreproductive behaviors and analyses of stress markers such as dopamine in brain samples, sex hormones, cortisol, and glucose in plasma samples were performed. We observed that 91% of 50 μg/L fadrozole treated fish developed as males. Interestingly, reproductive analyses of these males gave rise to two subgroups (A and B). Subsequent sociobehavioral analyses demonstrated a timid and subdued behavior in subgroup B males. Furthermore, estimation of stress markers such as dopamine levels in the brain tissue, cortisol, and glucose levels in blood plasma and sex hormone levels in blood plasma exhibited an endocrine disruption-mediated stress leading to altered behavior in these males. These findings will help in understanding the fadrozole-mediated masculinization and behavioral alterations following endocrine disruption.