SciCombinator

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Journal: Yeungnam University journal of medicine

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To provide a long-term bacterial seal through the formation of reparative dentin bridge, calcium silicate-based pulp capping materials have been used at sites of pulpal exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineralization-inducing potentials of calcium silicate-based pulp capping materials (ProRoot MTA [PR], Biodentine [BD], and TheraCal LC [TC]) in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs).

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Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is rare in pregnancy, and few cases have been reported to date. Women with untreated CS rarely become pregnant because of the ovulatory dysfunction induced by hypercortisolism. It is difficult to diagnose CS in pregnancy because of its very low incidence, the overlap between the clinical signs of hypercortisolism and the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and the changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity that occur during pregnancy and limit the value of standard diagnostic testing. However, CS in pregnancy is associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes; therefore, its early diagnosis and treatment are important. Here, we report two patients with CS that was not diagnosed during pregnancy, in whom maternal and fetal morbidity developed because of hypercortisolism.

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Homozygous mutations in NUDT15 R139C are known as the major factor associated with thiopurine-induced early leukopenia, particularly in Asian patients. Therefore, NUDT15 genotyping is currently recommended before thiopurine treatment to identify patients who are NUDT15 poor metabolizers and consider the use of an alternative immunomodulatory therapy. We report a case of a 12-year-old Korean girl with Crohn’s disease (CD), in whom thiopurine-induced leukopenia was prevented by initiation of azathioprine (AZA) therapy at a low dose (0.5 mg/kg/day) and early detection of significant hair loss and white blood cell (WBC) count decrease at 17 days from the start of AZA treatment. The WBC count dropped from 8,970/μL to 3,370/μL in 2 weeks, and AZA treatment was stopped because of concerns of potential leukopenia in the near future. Her WBC count recovered to 5,120/μL after 3 weeks. Gene analysis later revealed that she had a homozygous mutation in NUDT15 R139C, resulting in a poor metabolizing activity of NUDT15. In situations when NUDT15 genotyping is unavailable, initiation of AZA therapy at 0.5 mg/kg/day with close observation of hair loss and WBC counts within 2 weeks may be an alternative way to prevent thiopurine-induced early leukopenia in Asian children with CD.

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A diabetic foot is the most common cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations (LEA). The study seeks to assess the risk factors of amputation in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU).

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Hysterectomy is one of the major gynecologic surgeries. Historically, several surgical procedures have been used for hysterectomy. The present study aims to evaluate the surgical trends and clinical outcomes of hysterectomy performed for benign diseases at the Yeungnam University Hospital.

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Negative myoclonus (NM) is a shock-like jerky involuntary movement caused by a sudden, brief interruption of tonic muscle contraction. NM is observed in patients diagnosed with epilepsy, metabolic encephalopathy, and drug toxicity and in patients with brain lesions. A 55-year-old man presented with NM in both his arms and neck. He has taken medications containing tramadol at a dose of 80-140 mg/day for 5 days due to common cold. He had no history of seizures. Acute lesions were not observed during magnetic resonance imaging, and abnormal findings in his laboratory tests were not noted. His NM resolved completely after the discontinuation of tramadol and the oral administration of clonazepam. Our case report suggests that tramadol can cause NM in patients without seizure history or metabolic disorders, even within its therapeutic dose.

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Among the different aims of medical education, the provision of society with skilled, professional, and knowledgeable healthcare workers who maintain and develop their expertise over a lifetime career is important. The achievement of this goal is linked with the professional development of both faculty members and healthcare workers. This study aims to measure the perception of faculty members regarding their views about the goals of faculty development programs, practices and activities, and factors that determine their achievement.

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This study evaluated the usefulness of judgment of central lymph node (LN) metastasis by surgeon’s palpation in papillary thyroid cancer.

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The demand for drug-induced sedation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have substantially increased in response to increases in MRI utilization and growing interest in anxiety in children. Understanding the pharmacologic options for deep sedation and general anesthesia in an MRI environment is essential to achieve immobility for the successful completion of the procedure and ensure rapid and safe discharge of children undergoing ambulatory MRI. For painless diagnostic MRI, a single sedative/anesthetic agent without analgesia is safer than a combination of multiple sedatives. The traditional drugs, such as chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, midazolam, and ketamine, are still used due to the ease of administration despite low sedation success rate, prolonged recovery, and significant adverse events. Currently, dexmedetomidine, with respiratory drive preservation, and propofol, with high effectiveness and rapid recovery, are preferred for children undergoing ambulatory MRI. General anesthesia using propofol or sevoflurane can also provide predictable rapid time to readiness and scan times in infant or children with comorbidities. The selection of appropriate drugs as well as sufficient monitoring equipment are vital for effective and safe sedation and anesthesia for ambulatory pediatric MRI.

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as an attractive option for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint, due to their marked disease-modifying ability and chondrogenic potential. MSCs can be isolated from various organ tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, synovium, umbilical cord blood, and articular cartilage with similar phenotypic characteristics but different proliferation and differentiation potentials. They can be differentiated into a variety of connective tissues such as bone, adipose tissue, cartilage, intervertebral discs, ligaments, and muscles. Although several studies have reported on the clinical efficacy of MSCs in knee OA, the results lack consistency. Furthermore, there is no consensus regarding the proper cell dosage and application method to achieve the optimal effect of stem cells. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to review the characteristics of various type of stem cells in knee OA, especially MSCs. Moreover, we summarize the clinical issues faced during the application of MSCs.