Journal: World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common gastrointestinal illness, which affects the quality of life with substantial morbidity and mortality. The management includes medical, endoscopic and surgical approaches with the need for interaction between various specialties, calling for a concerted multidisciplinary approach. However, at the time of this publication, guidelines to establish care of these patients are lacking. This review provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the studies summarizing the various treatment options available, including medical, surgical and endoscopic options. In addition, technological advances such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrophy, endoscopic shock wave lithotripsy and endoscopic ultrasound can now be offered with reasonable success for pancreatic decompression, stricture dilatation with stent placement, stone fragmentation, pseudocyst drainage, and other endoscopic interventions such as celiac plexus block for pain relief. We emphasize the endoscopic options in this review, and attempt to extract the most up to date information from the current literature. The treatment of CP and its complications are discussed extensively. Complications such as biliary strictures. pancreatic pseudocysts, and chronic pain are common issues that arise as long-term complications of CP. These often require endoscopic or surgical management and possibly a combination of approaches, however choosing amongst the various therapeutic and palliative modalities while weighing the risks and benefits, makes the management of CP challenging. Treatment goals should be not just to control symptoms but also to prevent disease progression. Our aim in this paper is to advocate and emphasize an evidence based approach for the management of CP and associated long term complications.
Bilioenteric or pancreatoenteric anastomotic strictures often occur after surgery for a pancreaticobiliary disorder. Therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using balloon enteroscopy has been shown to be feasible and effective in patients with such strictures. However, when a benign anastomotic stricture is severe, a dilation catheter cannot pass through the stricture despite successful insertion of the guidewire. We report on the usefulness of the Soehendra Stent Retriever over a guidewire for dilating a severe bilioenteric or pancreatoenteric anastomotic stricture under short double-balloon enteroscopy, in two patients with surgically altered anatomies.
To investigate the clinical impact of capsule endoscopy (CE) after an obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) episode, focusing on diagnostic work-up, follow-up and predictive factors of rebleeding.
Ischemic colitis accounts for 6%-18% of causes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is more often multifactorial and more common in elderly. Drugs are considered important causative agents of this disease with different mechanisms. In this paper, we describe a 37-year-old otherwise healthy female presented with sudden onset diffuse abdominal pain and bloody stool. Radiologic, colonoscopic and histopathologic findings were all consistent with ischemic colitis. Her only suspected factor was hydroxycut which she had been taking for a period of 1 mo prior to her presentation. Her condition improved uneventfully after cessation of hydroxycut, bowel rest, intravenous hydration, and antibiotics. This is a first case of ischemic colitis with clear relationship with hydroxycut use (Naranjo score of 7). Our case demonstrates the importance of questioning patients regarding the usage of dietary supplements; especially since many patients consider them safe and do not disclose their use voluntarily to their physicians. Hydroxycut has to be considered as a potential trigger for otherwise unexplained ischemic colitis.
Gastrointestinal endoscopies are invasive and unpleasant procedures that are increasingly being used worldwide. The importance of high quality procedures (especially in colorectal cancer screening), the increasing patient awareness and the expectation of painless examination, increase the need for procedural sedation. The best single sedation agent for endoscopy is propofol which, due to its' pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile allows for a higher patient satisfaction and procedural quality and lower induction and recovery times, while maintaining the safety of traditional sedation. Propofol is an anesthetic agent when used in higher doses than those needed for endoscopy. Because of this important feature it may lead to cardiovascular and respiratory depression and, ultimately, to cardiac arrest and death. Fueled by this argument, concern over the safety of its administration by personnel without general anesthesia training has arisen. Propofol usage seems to be increasing but it’s still underused. It is a safe alternative for simple endoscopic procedures in low risk patients even if administered by non-anesthesiologists. Evidence on propofol safety in complex procedures and high risk patients is less robust and in these cases, the presence of an anesthetist should be considered. We review the existing evidence on the topic and evaluate the regional differences on sedation practices.
Understanding the technical constructs of bariatric surgery is important to the treating endoscopist to maximize effective endoluminal therapy. Post-operative complication rates vary widely based on the complication of interest, and have been reported to be as high as 68% following adjustable gastric banding. Similarly, there is a wide range of presenting symptoms for post-operative bariatric complications, including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and weight regain, all of which may provoke an endoscopic assessment. Bleeding and anastomotic leak are considered to be early (< 30 d) complications, whereas strictures, marginal ulcers, band erosions, and weight loss failure or weight recidivism are typically considered late (> 30 d) complications. Treatment of complications in the immediate post-operative period may require unique considerations. Endoluminal therapies serve as adjuncts to surgical and radiographic procedures. This review aims to summarize the spectrum and efficacy of endoscopic management of post-operative bariatric complications.
The development of capsule endoscopy (CE) in 2001 has given gastroenterologists the opportunity to investigate the small bowel in a non-invasive way. CE is most commonly performed for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but other indications include diagnosis or follow-up of Crohn’s disease, suspicion of a small bowel tumor, diagnosis and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small bowel lesions and celiac disease. Almost fifteen years have passed since the release of the small bowel capsule. The purpose of this review is to offer the reader a brief but complete overview on small bowel CE anno 2014, including the technical and procedural aspects, the possible complications and the most important indications. We will end with some future perspectives of CE.
Conscious sedation has been the standard of care for many years for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. As procedures have become more complex and lengthy, additional medications became essential for adequate sedation. Often time’s deep sedation is required for procedures such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiography which necessitates higher doses of narcotics and benzodiazepines or even use of other medications such as ketamine. Given its pharmacologic properties, propofol was rapidly adopted worldwide to gastrointestinal endoscopy for complex procedures and more recently to routine upper and lower endoscopy. Many studies have shown superiority for both the physician and patient compared to standard sedation. Nevertheless, its use remains highly controversial. A number of studies worldwide show that propofol can be given safely by endoscopists or nurses when well trained. Despite this wealth of data, at many centers its use has been prohibited unless administered by anesthesiology. In this commentary, we review the use of anesthesia support for endoscopy in the United States based on recent data and its implications for gastroenterologists worldwide.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (commonly known as IBD) have a greater risk of colorectal cancer than the general population. Therefore, they are included in special programs for screening and follow-up. Chromoendoscopy, which has a high diagnostic yield in the detection of neoplasia, is generally the recommended endoscopy technique. However, this procedure does have some disadvantages (long examination time, need for optimal bowel preparation, specialist training), which increase its cost. How then can we overcome these barriers? First, it is necessary to educate hospital managers and directors of the advantages of chromoendoscopy in patients with IBD. Second, at least one endoscopist per center should be a specialist in the technique. Third, we should train nursing staff in the preparation of the dye. Finally, each examination should be given the time it needs. Even though clinical practice guidelines do not yet recommend the use of virtual imaging techniques such as narrow band imaging, a recent study reported no differences between the two approaches for the detection of tumors. Therefore, we believe that all patients should undergo chromoendoscopy. In the future, centers without access to dyes or where other barriers exist should at least perform narrow band imaging.
The liver has eight segments, which are referred to by numbers or by names. The numbering of the segments is done in a counterclockwise manner with the liver being viewed from the inferior surface, starting from Segment I (the caudate lobe). Standard anatomical description of the liver segments is available by computed tomographic scan and ultrasonography. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been used for a detailed imaging of many intra-abdominal organs and for the assessment of intra-abdominal vasculature. A stepwise evaluation of the liver segments by EUS has not been described. In this article, we have described a stepwise evaluation of the liver segments by EUS. This information can be useful for planning successful radical surgeries, preparing for biopsy, portal vein embolization, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, tumour resection or partial hepatectomy, and for planning EUS guided diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.