SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: World journal of gastroenterology : WJG

169

To explore whether patients with a defective ileocecal valve (ICV)/cecal distension reflex have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

Concepts: Bacteria, Digestive system, Large intestine, Intestine, Gastroenterology, Small intestine, Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, Ileocecal valve

168

Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign and chronic disorder well known in young adults and less in children. It is often related to prolonged excessive straining or abnormal defecation and clinically presents as rectal bleeding, copious mucus discharge, feeling of incomplete defecation, and rarely rectal prolapse. SRUS is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings. The current treatments are suboptimal, and despite correct diagnosis, outcomes can be unsatisfactory. Some treatment protocols for SRUS include conservative management such as family reassurance, regulation of toilet habits, avoidance of straining, encouragement of a high-fiber diet, topical treatments with salicylate, sulfasalazine, steroids and sucralfate, and surgery. In children, SRUS is relatively uncommon but troublesome and easily misdiagnosed with other common diseases, however, it is being reported more than in the past. This condition in children is benign; however, morbidity is an important problem as reflected by persistence of symptoms, especially rectal bleeding. In this review, we discuss current diagnosis and treatment for SRUS.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Asthma, Medical terms, Surgery, Symptom, Rectum, Rectal prolapse

164

To assess the technical safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with immediate radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for large hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) (maximum diameter ≥ 5 cm).

Concepts: Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatology, Radiology, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, Radiofrequency ablation

164

To investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in rats via a p53-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

Concepts: Oxygen, Glycyrrhetinic acid, Glycyrrhizin

164

To investigate the survival of individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD-associated CRC) compared to that of individuals without IBD diagnosed with CRC.

Concepts: Cancer, Colorectal cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Constipation, Inflammatory bowel disease, Ileostomy

79

To investigate the effects of proteins purified from sweet potato storage roots on human colorectal cancer cell lines.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Cell, Cancer, Oncology, Cell biology, Colorectal cancer, DNA replication

28

Curcumin is a low-molecular-weight hydrophobic polyphenol that is extracted from turmeric, which possesses a wide range of biological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-microbial activities. Despite its diverse targets and substantial safety, clinical applications of this molecule for digestive disorders have been largely limited to case series or small clinical trials. The poor bioavailability of curcumin is likely the major hurdle for its more widespread use in humans. However, complexation of curcumin into phytosomes has recently helped to bypass this problem, as it has been demonstrated that this new lecithin formulation enables increased absorption to a level 29-fold higher than that of traditional curcuminoid products. This allows us to achieve much greater tissue substance delivery using significantly lower doses of curcumin than have been used in past clinical studies. As curcumin has already been shown to provide good therapeutic results in some small studies of both inflammatory and neoplastic bowel disorders, it is reasonable to anticipate an even greater efficacy with the advent of this new technology, which remarkably improves its bioavailability. These features are very promising and may represent a novel and effective therapeutic approach to both functional and organic digestive diseases.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Antioxidant, Effectiveness, Avicenna, Evaluation methods, Curcumin

26

Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment.

Concepts: Medicine, Diseases and disorders, Medical terms, Symptoms, Medical diagnosis, Tongue, Conditions of the mucous membranes, Black hairy tongue

26

To provide trends in incidence, management and survival of cancer of the ampulla of Vater in a well-defined French population.

Concepts: France, Ampulla of Vater, French people

25

Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of hepatic copper metabolism. WD can be present in different clinical conditions, with the most common ones being liver disease and neuropsychiatric disturbances. Most cases present symptoms at < 40 years of age. However, few reports exist in the literature on patients in whom the disease presented beyond this age. In this report, we present a case of late onset fulminant WD in a 58-year-old patient in whom the diagnosis was established clinically, by genetic analysis of the ATP7B gene disclosing rare mutations (G1099S and c.1707+3insT) as well as by high hepatic copper content. We also reviewed the relevant literature. The diagnosis of WD with late onset presentation is easily overlooked. The diagnostic features and the genetic background in patients with late onset WD are not different from those in patients with early onset WD, except for the age. Effective treatments for this disorder that can be fatal are available and will prevent or reverse many manifestations if the disease is discovered early.

Concepts: Genetics, Cancer, Genetic disorder, Allele, Medical terms, Cirrhosis, Copper, Wilson's disease