Older adults are less able to produce a protective antibody response to vaccinations. One factor that contributes to this is immune ageing. Here we examined whether diurnal variations in immune responses might extend to the antibody response to vaccination.
There has been enormous debate regarding the possibility of a link between childhood vaccinations and the subsequent development of autism. This has in recent times become a major public health issue with vaccine preventable diseases increasing in the community due to the fear of a ‘link’ between vaccinations and autism. We performed a meta-analysis to summarise available evidence from case-control and cohort studies on this topic (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar up to April, 2014). Eligible studies assessed the relationship between vaccine administration and the subsequent development of autism or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Two reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Disagreement was resolved by consensus with another author. Five cohort studies involving 1,256,407 children, and five case-control studies involving 9920 children were included in this analysis. The cohort data revealed no relationship between vaccination and autism (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.06) or ASD (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.20), or MMR (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.01), or thimerosal (OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.77 to 1.31), or mercury (Hg) (OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.07). Similarly the case-control data found no evidence for increased risk of developing autism or ASD following MMR, Hg, or thimerosal exposure when grouped by condition (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.98; p=0.02) or grouped by exposure type (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.95; p=0.01). Findings of this meta-analysis suggest that vaccinations are not associated with the development of autism or autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the components of the vaccines (thimerosal or mercury) or multiple vaccines (MMR) are not associated with the development of autism or autism spectrum disorder.
In Canada, private purchase of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines has been possible since 2006. In Alberta, Canada, a publicly funded quadrivalent HPV vaccine program began in the 2008/2009 school year. There have been concerns about adverse events, including venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with HPV vaccines. We describe the frequencies of adverse events following HPV vaccination among Alberta females aged 9 years or older and look at VTE following HPV vaccination.
Vaccination has been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). HPV vaccine was introduced in the Norwegian Childhood Immunisation Programme and offered 12year old girls from 2009. We studied the association between HPV vaccination and risk of CFS/ME and also assessed medical history in relation to both risk of CFS/ME and HPV vaccine uptake.
Together with access, acceptance of vaccines affects human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage, yet little is known about media’s role. Our aim was to determine whether measures of information exposure derived from Twitter could be used to explain differences in coverage in the United States.
To investigate concerns about a potential association between quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination (HPV4) and venous thromboembolism (VTE), we conducted a self-controlled case series study in adolescents and young adults 9-26 years of age in the Vaccine Safety Datalink.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of moderate-to-severe infant diarrhoea in developing countries, resulting in enormous morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. A bovine-human reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (BRV-PV) targeting the globally most common strains was developed in India and tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled end-point driven Phase III efficacy clinical trial implemented at six sites across India. Infants 6 to 8weeks of age were randomized (1:1) to receive three oral doses of BRV-PV or placebo at 6, 10, and 14weeks of age along with routine vaccines. Home visit surveillance was conducted to detect severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (SRVGE) and safety outcomes until the children reached two years of age. A total of 3749 infants received BRV-PV while 3751 received placebo. At the time of the primary end-point (when the minimum number of cases needed for analysis were accrued) the vaccine efficacy against SRVGE was 36% (95% CI 11.7, 53.6, p=0.0067) in the per protocol (PP) analysis, and 41.9% (95% CI 21.1, 57.3, p=0.0005) in the intent to treat (ITT) analysis. Vaccine efficacy over the entire follow-up period (until children reached two years of age) was 39.5% (95% CI 26.7, 50, p<0.0001) in the PP analysis and 38.8% (95% CI, 26.4, 49, p<0.0001) in the ITT analysis. Vaccine efficacy against the very severe rotavirus cases (VSRVGE, Vesikari score≥16) was 60.5% (95% CI 17.7, 81, p=0.0131) at the time of the primary analysis and 54.7% (95% CI 29.7, 70.8, p=0.0004) for the complete follow-period in the PP population. The incidence of solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were similar in both the vaccine and placebo groups. Likewise, the number of intussusceptions and deaths were similar between both groups. Thus, BRV-PV is an effective, well tolerated and safe vaccine in Indian infants. (Trial registration: Clinical Trials.Gov [NCT 02133690] and Clinical Trial Registry of India [CTRI/2013/05/003667]).
Seasonal influenza is an important disease which results in 250,000-500,000 annual deaths worldwide. Global targets for vaccination coverage rates (VCRs) in high-risk groups are at least 75% in adults ≥65 years and increased coverage in other risk groups. The International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations Influenza Vaccine Supply (IFPMA IVS) International Task Force developed a survey methodology in 2008, to assess the global distribution of influenza vaccine doses as a proxy for VCRs. This paper updates the previous survey results on absolute numbers of influenza vaccine doses distributed between 2004 and 2013 inclusive, and dose distribution rates per 1000 population, and provides a qualitative assessment of the principal enablers and barriers to seasonal influenza vaccination. The two main findings from the quantitative portion of the survey are the continued negative trend for dose distribution in the EURO region and the perpetuation of appreciable differences in scale of dose distribution between WHO regions, with no observed convergence in the rates of doses distributed per 1000 population over time. The main findings from the qualitative portion of the survey were that actively managing the vaccination program in real-time and ensuring political commitment to vaccination are important enablers of vaccination, whereas insufficient access to vaccination and lack of political commitment to seasonal influenza vaccination programs are likely contributing to vaccination target failures. In all regions of the world, seasonal influenza vaccination is underutilized as a public health tool. The survey provides evidence of lost opportunity to protect populations against potentially serious influenza-associated disease. We call on the national and international public health communities to re-evaluate their political commitment to the prevention of the annual influenza disease burden and to develop a systematic approach to improve vaccine distribution equitably.
This case-control study investigated the relationship between the risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) onset, and early exposure to the combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal consumption measured from vaccinations in the highly genetically homogenous Japanese population.
In a cooperative agreement starting January 1995, prior to the FDA’s licensure of the varicella vaccine on March 17, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded the Los Angeles Department of Health Services' Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project (AV-VASP). Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10years of age had been vaccinated. Starting in 2000, HZ surveillance was added to the project. By 2002, notable increases in HZ incidence rates were reported among both children and adults with a prior history of natural varicella. However, CDC authorities still claimed that no increase in HZ had occurred in any US surveillance site. The basic assumptions inherent to the varicella cost-benefit analysis ignored the significance of exogenous boosting caused by those shedding wild-type VZV. Also ignored was the morbidity associated with even rare serious events following varicella vaccination as well as the morbidity from increasing cases of HZ among adults. Vaccine efficacy declined below 80% in 2001. By 2006, because 20% of vaccinees were experiencing breakthrough varicella and vaccine-induced protection was waning, the CDC recommended a booster dose for children and, in 2007, a shingles vaccination was approved for adults aged 60years and older. In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)-these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to provide long-term protection from VZV disease.