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Journal: Urology


OBJECTIVE: To clearly define the proportions of benign vs malignant histologic findings in resected renal masses through an in-depth review of the contemporary medical data to assist in preoperative risk assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and select oncology congresses were searched for publications that identify the histologic classification of resected renal masses in a representative sample from the contemporary data: [search] incidence AND (renal cell carcinoma AND benign); incidence AND (renal tumor AND benign); percentage AND (renal cell carcinoma AND benign); limit 2003-2011. RESULTS: We identified 26 representative studies meeting the inclusion criteria and incorporating 27,272 patients. The frequency of benign tumors ranged from 7% to 33%, with most studies within a few percentage points of the mean (14.5% ± 5.2%, median 13.9%). Clear cell renal cell carcinoma occurred in 46% to 83% of patients, with a mean of 68.3% (median 61.3; SD = 11.9%). An inverse relationship between tumor size and benign pathologic features was identified in 14 of 19 (74%) studies that examined an association between tumor size and pathologic characteristics. A statistically significant correlation between clear cell renal cell carcinoma and tumor size was identified in 13 of 19 studies (63%). The accuracy of preoperative cross-sectional imaging was low in the 2 studies examining computed tomography (17%). CONCLUSION: Benign renal tumors represent ∼15% of detected surgically resected renal masses and are more prevalent among small clinical T1a lesions. Noninvasive preoperative differentiation between more and less aggressive renal masses would be an important clinical advance that could allow clinicians greater diagnostic confidence and guide patient management through improved risk stratification.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Statistics, Anatomical pathology, Benign tumor, Tumor, Standard deviation, Renal cell carcinoma


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of DA-8031, a novel compound for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE), we performed in vivo pharmacological studies using 2 preclinical animal models, electrical stimulation of sensory branch of pudendal nerve (SBPdn) and para-chloroamphetamine (PCA)-induced ejaculation model. METHODS: First of all, in electrical stimulation of an SBPdn model, an SBPdn in the pelvic canal of the spinal cord transected from rats was identified. Then an electromyogram (EMG) of the bulbospongiosus (BS) muscle was recorded during electrical stimulation of SBPdn after single intravenous (IV) dosing of DA-8031 and its reference drug, dapoxetine. In the second model, both seminal vesicle pressure (SVP) and the EMG profile of the BS muscle were recorded in PCA-induced ejaculation animals after treated with the same dosing regimen. RESULTS: Area under the curve (AUC) of the BS muscle by EMG wave exhibited a significant reduction in the DA-8031 and dapoxetine 3 mg/kg treated groups, and maximum amplitudes were also significantly decreased in DA-8031 1, 3 mg/kg and dapoxetine 3 mg/kg dose level in the SBPdN stimulation model. Consistent with these findings, in a PCA-induced ejaculation model, SVP increase was significantly inhibited from DA-8031 0.3 mg/kg dose level, and AUC of BS muscle EMG significantly decreased in the DA-8031 1, 3 mg/kg groups. CONCLUSION: The present study implied that DA-8031 contributed to an effective co-coordinated inhibition of the expulsion phase of ejaculation by modulating BS muscle activity and the emission phase through blocking SVP rise. From these findings, DA-8031 is further expected to have clinical efficacy in human studies.

Concepts: Semen, Electromyography, Orgasm, Ejaculation, Penis, Premature ejaculation, Pudendal nerve, Bulbospongiosus muscle


To study the impact of genomic testing in shared decision making for men with clinically low risk prostate cancer (PCa).

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Decision making, Risk, Prostate cancer, Urology, Decision theory, Benign prostatic hyperplasia


To describe the demographics and mechanism of genitourinary (GU) injuries related to pubic hair grooming in patients who present to U.S. emergency departments (EDs).

Concepts: Hospital, Pubic hair


To evaluate the ability of the Decipher genomic classifier in predicting metastasis from analysis of prostate needle biopsy diagnostic tumor tissue specimens.

Concepts: Cancer, Prostate cancer, Greek loanwords, Medical tests


A 31-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of gross hematuria. Radiologic examinations with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed renal arteriovenous malformation in the right kidney and an entrapped retroaortic left renal vein. Because the patient was free of hematuria, she refused additional treatment for economic reasons. Renal arteriovenous malformation associated with the posterior nutcracker phenomenon is a very rare condition.

Concepts: Kidney, Patient, Medical imaging, Ureter, Radiology, Renal artery, Renal vein, Minor calyx


OBJECTIVE: To understand the nature and long-term fate of supranormal differential renal function (snDRF), analysis of a post-pyeloplasty database was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) diuretic renal scans (DRS) identified 33 children with snDRF (>55%). Postoperatively, all showed improved hydronephrosis in ultrasound imaging or normalized drainage pattern in DRS during more than 5 years of follow-up. The fate of snDRF was described, and the nature of snDRF was speculated by associating it with clinical and ultrasound-related variables. RESULTS: Median age at operation was 22 months. Preoperative hydronephrosis was grade III in 27 patients (82%) and grade IV in 6 (18%). Hydronephrosis was normalized or improved, showing relief of obstruction. Overall fate of snDRF revealed significant reduction of DRF in 23 patients (70%), of whom 18 (81%) showed normalization during 5 years of follow-up. Stationary change of snDRF was seen in one-third of patients. Comparison of clinical and ultrasound-related variables revealed lower age, lower renal parenchyma thickness (RPT) increase, and higher preoperative DRF in the normalized group compared with the other group. The normalized group also showed a higher number in Society of Fetal Urology grade 4 hydronephrosis and lower RPT, although they reached borderline statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Long-term follow-up revealed that 70% of snDRF significantly decreased and normalized in most patients. The normalized group was younger and showed more hydronephrotic changes. Hydronephrotic change is suggested as a possible cause of snDRF.

Concepts: Kidney, Nephrology, Statistical significance, Renal pelvis, Statistical hypothesis testing, Effect size, Multiple comparisons, Hydronephrosis


OBJECTIVE: To compare the ergonomics and workload of the surgeon during single-site suturing while using the magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) camera vs a conventional laparoscope. METHODS: Seven urologic surgeons were enrolled and divided into an expert group (n = 2) and a novice group (n = 5) according to their laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) experience. Each surgeon performed 2 conventional LESS and 2 MAGS camera-assisted LESS vesicostomy closures in a porcine model. A Likert scale (scoring 1-5) questionnaire assessing workload, ergonomics, technical difficulty, visualization, and needle handling, as well as a validated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire were used to evaluate the tasks and workloads. RESULTS: MAGS LESS suturing was universally favored by expert and novice surgeons compared with conventional LESS in workload (3.4 vs 4.2), ergonomics (3.4 vs 4.4), technical challenge (3.3 vs 4.3), visualization (2.4 vs 3.3), and needle handling (3.1 vs 3.9 respectively; P <.05 for all categories). Surgeon NASA-TLX assessments found MAGS LESS suturing significantly decreased the workload in physical demand (P = .004), temporal demand (P = .017), and effort (P = .006). External instrument clashing was significantly reduced in MAGS LESS suturing (P <.001). The total operative time of MAGS LESS suturing was comparable to that of conventional LESS (P = .89). CONCLUSION: MAGS camera technology significantly decreased surgeon workload and improved ergonomics. Nevertheless, LESS suturing and knot tying remains a challenging task that requires training, regardless of which camera is used.

Concepts: Surgery, Knot, Surgeon, Task, Likert scale, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, Rocket


Cystinuria is an inherited disorder of the dibasic amino acid transport system in the proximal tubule and the small intestine. Two responsible genes have been identified, the SLC3A1 on chromosome 2 and the SLC7A9 on chromosome 19. The inability of renal tubules to reabsorb cystine and the relative insolubility of cystine at physiological urine pH lead to stone formation. Cornerstone of the treatment remains stone prevention with hyperhydration, urinary alkalization, and pharmacologic therapy. Repeated stone formation necessitates urologic interventions, which mainly include minimally invasive procedures. The appropriate management of cystinuria is often challenging and requires close follow-up of the patient.

Concepts: Amino acid, Acid, Ammonia, Urine, Chromosome, Urinary bladder, SLC3A1, Cystinuria


Nutcracker syndrome (NCS), which is caused by compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, leads to a series of clinical symptoms including hematuria, proteinuria, flank pain, and varicocele. The diagnosis of NCS is difficult due to variations in normal anatomy. Treatment, which ranges from observation to nephrectomy, remains controversial. We conducted a review based on the related literature and our experience with hundreds of cases. We summarize the characteristics of NCS, the different measurements used in diagnosis, and the current treatment options. We present our diagnostic criteria and recommend endovascular stenting as the primary option for NCS.

Concepts: Kidney, Greek loanwords, Abdominal aorta, Renal artery, Renal vein, Inferior vena cava, Superior mesenteric artery, Nutcracker syndrome