SciCombinator

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Journal: Ultrasonics sonochemistry

28

Ultrasound (US) was used to facilitate dead-end microfiltration (MF) of grape pomace (GP) extracts. The effects of ultrasonic power, sonication cycle time and ultrasonic probe height on filtration behaviour were investigated. Ultrasonic irradiation had a strong impact on the MF processes, especially with high output power and continuous mode. A comparative study of US-assisted and stirred MF was performed. The energy consumption and liquid flux enhancement of the two filtration systems were compared. Under the same dissipation power, the flux enhancement is much higher for the US-assisted MF. A correlation equation for predicting permeate flux was derived from resistance-in-series model. The flux predictions were confirmed with the experimental results. Finally, the characteristics of permeate after US-assisted and stirred filtration were evaluated.

Concepts: Prediction, Futurology, Future, Ultrasound, Polynomial, Filtration, Pomace, Microfiltration

28

Ultrasonically induced flow is an important phenomenon observed in a sonochemical reactor. It controls the mass transport of sonochemical reaction and enhances the reaction performance. In the present paper, the liquid velocity distribution of ultrasonically induced flow in the sonochemical reactor with a transducer at frequency of 490 kHz has been numerically simulated. From the comparison of simulation results and experimental data, the ultrasonic absorption coefficient in the sonochemical reactor has been evaluated. To simulate the liquid velocity near the liquid surface above the transducer, which is the main sonochemical reaction area, it is necessary to include the acoustic fountain shape into the computational domain. The simulation results indicate that the liquid velocity increases with acoustic power. The variation of liquid height also influences the behavior of liquid velocity distribution and the mean velocity above the transducer centre becomes a maximum when the liquid height is 0.4m. The liquid velocity decreases with increasing the transducer plate radius at the same ultrasonic power.

Concepts: Simulation, Operations research, Monte Carlo method, Simulated reality, Sound, Computational sociology, Mathematical model, AnyLogic

28

The flow in a confined container induced by an ultrasonic horn is measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). This flow is caused by acoustic streaming and highly influenced by the presence of cavitation. The jet-like experimentally observed flow is compared with the available theoretical solution for a turbulent free round jet. The similarity between both flows enables a simplified numerical model to be made, whilst the phenomenon is very difficult to simulate otherwise. The numerical model requires only two parameters, i.e. the flow momentum and turbulent kinetic energy at the position of the horn tip. The simulated flow is used as a basis for the calculation of the time required for the entire liquid volume to pass through the active cavitation region.

Concepts: Energy, Fundamental physics concepts, Fluid dynamics, Kinetic energy, Operations research, Computer graphics, Classical mechanics, Particle image velocimetry

28

Megasonic cleaning as applied in leading edge semiconductor device manufacturing strongly relies on the phenomenon of acoustic cavitation. As the occurrence of acoustic cavitation is incorporating a multitude of interdependent effects, the amount of cavitation activity in the cleaning liquid strongly depends on the sonication conditions. It is shown that cavitation activity as measured by means of ultraharmonic cavitation noise can be significantly enhanced when pulsed sonication is applied to a gas supersaturated liquid under traveling wave conditions. It is demonstrated that this enhancement coincides with a dramatic increase in particle removal and is therefore of great interest for megasonic cleaning applications. It is demonstrated that the optimal pulse parameters are determined by the dissolution time of the active bubbles, whereas the amount of cavitation activity depends on the ratio between pulse-off and pulse-on time as well as the applied acoustic power. The optimal pulse-off time is independent of the corresponding pulse-on time but increases significantly with increasing gas concentration. We show that on the other hand, supersaturation is needed to enable acoustic cavitation at aforementioned conditions, but has to be kept below values, for which active bubbles cannot dissolve anymore and are therefore lost during subsequent pulses. For the applicable range of gas contents between 100% and 130% saturation, the optimal pulse-off time reaches values between 150 and 340 ms, respectively. Full particle removal of 78 nm-diameter silica particles at a power density of 0.67 W/cm(2) is obtained for the optimal pulse-off times. The optimal pulse-off time values are derived from the dissolution time of bubbles with a radius of 3.3 μm and verified experimentally. The bubble radius used in the calculations corresponds to the linear resonance size in a 928 kHz sound field, which demonstrates that the recycling of active bubbles is the main enhancement mechanism. The optimal choice of the pulsing conditions however is constrained by the trade-off between the effective sonication time and the desire to have a sufficient amount of active bubbles at lower powers, which might be necessary if very delicate structures have to be cleaned.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Fluid dynamics, Pulse, Wave, Ultrasound, Sound, Superheating, Sonochemistry

28

An efficient intermittent ultrasonic treatment strategy was developed to improve laccase production from Trametes versicolor mycelia cultures. The optimized strategy consisted of exposing 2-day-old mycelia cultures to 5-min ultrasonic treatments for two times with a 12-h interval at the fixed ultrasonic power and frequency (120 W, 40 kHz). After 5 days of culture, this strategy produced the highest extracellular laccase activity of 588.9 U/L among all treatments tested which was 1.8-fold greater than the control without ultrasound treatment. The ultrasonic treatment resulted in a higher pellet porosity that facilitated the mass transfer of nutrients and metabolites from the pellets to the surrounding liquid. Furthermore, the ultrasonic treatment induced the expression of the laccase gene (lcc), which correlated with a sharp increase in both extracellular and intracellular laccase activity. This is the first study to find positive effects of ultrasound on gene expression in fungal cells. These results provide a basis for understanding the stimulation of metabolite production and process intensification by ultrasonic treatment in filamentous fungal culture.

Concepts: Gene, Cell nucleus, Gene expression, Bacteria, Molecular biology, Fungus, Ultrasound, Trametes versicolor

28

The physics and chemistry of nonlinearly oscillating acoustic cavitation bubbles are strongly influenced by the dissolved gas in the surrounding liquid. Changing the gas alters among others the luminescence spectrum, and the radical production of the collapsing bubbles. An overview of experiments with various gas types and concentration described in literature is given and is compared to mechanisms that lead to the observed changes in luminescence spectra and radical production. The dissolved gas type changes the bubble adiabatic ratio, thermal conductivity, and the liquid surface tension, and consequently the hot spot temperature. The gas can also participate in chemical reactions, which can enhance radical production or luminescence of a cavitation bubble. With this knowledge, the gas content in cavitation can be tailored to obtain the desired output.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Fundamental physics concepts, Chemistry, Temperature, Liquid, Surface tension, Gas, Cavitation

28

Various industrial processes such as sonochemical processing and ultrasonic cleaning strongly rely on the phenomenon of acoustic cavitation. As the occurrence of acoustic cavitation is incorporating a multitude of interdependent effects, the amount of cavitation activity in a vessel is strongly depending on the ultrasonic process conditions. It is therefore crucial to quantify cavitation activity as a function of the process parameters. At 1 MHz, the active cavitation bubbles are so small that it is becoming difficult to observe them in a direct way. Hence, another metrology based on secondary effects of acoustic cavitation is more suitable to study cavitation activity. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of acoustic cavitation phenomena at 1 MHz ultrasound by means of time-resolved measurements of sonoluminescence, cavitation noise, and synchronized high-speed stroboscopic Schlieren imaging. It is shown that a correlation exists between sonoluminescence, and the ultraharmonic and broadband signals extracted from the cavitation noise spectra. The signals can be utilized to characterize different regimes of cavitation activity at different acoustic power densities. When cavitation activity sets on, the aforementioned signals correlate to fluctuations in the Schlieren contrast as well as the number of nucleated bubbles extracted from the Schlieren Images. This additionally proves that signals extracted from cavitation noise spectra truly represent a measure for cavitation activity. The cyclic behavior of cavitation activity is investigated and related to the evolution of the bubble populations in the ultrasonic tank. It is shown that cavitation activity is strongly linked to the occurrence of fast-moving bubbles. The origin of this “bubble streamers” is investigated and their role in the initialization and propagation of cavitation activity throughout the sonicated liquid is discussed. Finally, it is shown that bubble activity can be stabilized and enhanced by the use of pulsed ultrasound by conserving and recycling active bubbles between subsequent pulsing cycles.

Concepts: Acoustics, Ultrasound, Hertz, Sound, Sonar, Sonoluminescence, Sonochemistry, Cavitation

28

In this study, an aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) method for the extraction of the four acetophenones, namely 4-hydroxyacetophenone (1), 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (2), baishouwubenzophenone (3) and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (4) from the Chinese medicinal plant Cynanchum bungei was developed. Three kinds of aqueous l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anion and alkyl chain were investigated. The results indicated that ionic liquids (ILs) showed remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of acetophenones. In addition, the ILUAE, including several ultrasonic parameters, such as the ILs concentration, solvent to solid ratio, power, particle size, temperature, and extraction time have been optimized. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.6M [C(4)MIM]BF(4), solvent to solid ratio of 35:1, power of 175 W, particle size of 60-80 mesh, temperature of 25 ° C and time of 50 min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of four acetophenones 286.15, 21.65, 632.58 and 205.38 μg/g, respectively. The proposed approach has been evaluated by comparison with the conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE) and regular UAE. The results indicated that ILUAE is an alternative method for extracting acetophenones from C. bungei.

Concepts: Temperature, Solid, Solvent, Liquid, Ionic liquid, Gas, Ions, Deep eutectic solvent

28

Acoustic cavitation plays an important role in sonochemical processes and the rate of sonochemical reaction is influenced by sonication parameters. There are several methods to evaluate cavitation activity such as chemical dosimetry. In this study, to comparison between iodide dosimetry and terephthalic acid dosimetry, efficacy of sonication parameters in reactive radical production has been considered by iodide and terephthalic acid dosimetries. For this purpose, efficacy of different exposure parameters on cavitations production by 1 MHz ultrasound has been studied. The absorbance of KI dosimeter was measured by spectrophotometer and the fluorescence of terephthalic acid dosimeter was measured using spectrofluorometer after sonication. The result of experiments related to sonication time and intensity showed that with increasing time of sonication or intensity, the absorbance is increased. It has been shown that the absorbance for continuous mode is remarkably higher than for pulsing mode (p-value < 0.05). Also results show that with increasing the duty cycles of pulsed field, the inertial cavitation activity is increased. With compensation of sonication time or intensity in different duty cycles, no significant absorbance difference were observed unless 20% duty cycle. A significant correlation between the absorbance and fluorescence intensities (count) at different intensity (R = 0.971), different sonication time (R = 0.999) and different duty cycle (R = 0.967) were observed (p-value < 0.05). It is concluded that the sonication parameters having important influences on reactive radical production. These results suggest that there is a correlation between iodide dosimetry and terephthalic acid dosimetry to examine the acoustic cavitation activity in ultrasound field.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Light, Ultrasound, Hertz, Sound, Sonochemistry, Cavitation, Sonoporation

28

Azlactones have been prepared via Erlenmeyer synthesis from aromatic aldehydes and hippuric acid using Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles under ultrasonic irradiation. Short reaction times, easy and quick isolation of the products, and excellent yields are the main advantages of this procedure.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Iron oxide, Hippuric acid