SciCombinator

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Journal: Tropical animal health and production

28

Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, Low-density lipoprotein, Atheroma, Lipid disorders, Niacin, High-density lipoprotein, Lipoproteins

28

The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ≥2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level.

Concepts: Agriculture, Snail, Ijaw, Benin City, Heliciculture, Achatinidae, Edo State, Escargot

28

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is considered as one of the most serious problems affecting the world’s ruminant industry due to its significant impact on the global economy and the controversial issue that it may be pathogenic for humans. M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne’s disease in animals and might be implicated in cases of human Crohn’s disease. We provide an insight into M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis from some bacteriological, clinical, and molecular epidemiological perspectives.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Bacteria, Tuberculosis, Crohn's disease, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Johne's disease

28

After an initial survey on feeds and feeding practices at Kumaon Himalaya, the potential of oak leaves feeding was evaluated in six native heifers (Bos indicus; 101.5 kg BW, 18-24 months) in a partial switch-over design involving two animals each on each treatment at a time. The feeding treatments involved high and low levels of oak leaves (Quercus leucotrichophora, oak leaves (OL)) supplemented to local mixed grass hay (GH) which were GH (G1), GH + low level (42.5 %) of OL (G2) and GH + high level (63.6 %) of OL (G3). The feeding trial for each treatment was conducted for 40 days that ended with a digestibility trial of 6-day duration. The dry matter (DM) intake (kg/day) was non-significantly higher in G3 (3.52) than G2 (3.11) and G1 (2.96). Intake of crude protein (CP) (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in both G2 and G3 than G1. The digestibility of DM, CP, organic matter, ether extract and total carbohydrates increased (P < 0.001) linearly in OL-fed groups as compared to control. The total digestible nutrients (TDN) (kg/day) intake was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in G3 compared to G1, but it was comparable between G1 and G2. Intake of DM, CP, digestible CP (DCP) and TDN/metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram metabolic body weight was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in G3 than G2 which in turn was also higher (P < 0.01) than G1. The animals under G1 had negative gain (-50 g/day) compared to 146 and 306 g/day in G2 and G3, respectively. Feeding of OL reduced serum urea and creatinine level and supported serum protein concentration better in G3 compared to G2. The feeding of cattle on GH alone was lacking in both energy and protein for sustaining minimum levels of production, whereas in combination with OL at 36.4:63.6 ratios supported minimum level of production (ADG 300 g) with near nutritional adequacy for major nutrients (CP, DCP, TDN, ME) but with a caution for the minor nutrients like calcium and phosphorus that need to be supplemented.

Concepts: Protein, Metabolism, Nutrition, Animal, Nitrogen, Digestion, Serum total protein, Oak

28

Akabane disease characterized mainly by fetal damage is a ruminant disease caused by insect-transmitted Akabane virus infection.

Concepts: Disease, Infectious disease, Infection

27

Camels are seasonal breeders, and their sexual behavior is influenced by environmental conditions, but the relationship between climatic factors and sexual behavior has been poorly described in the available literature. Nowadays, the male camel living habit is shifting towards captivity; thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the sexual behavior of housed male dromedary camel through female’s parades and to correlate it with climatic parameters. Four housed sires, reared for semen collection, and one dam were used and the trial lasted 8 weeks, considering the first week as control. Six days per week and during evenings, the female was brought near each males' boxes, while two observers filled a behavioral sampling ethogram and scored the male sexual behavior. After this parade, blood samples were taken from the female to evaluate the estradiol concentration. In addition, the following meteorological parameters were recorded, everyday, at 9:00 a.m. and 19:00 p.m.: pressure, wind, temperature, humidity, and H-index. The correlation between sexual behavioral score and female estradiol concentration and climate parameters was analyzed. All the behavioral parameters showed a significant upward trend; female estradiol concentration varied during the period and picked at week 5. Male sexual behavior was negatively correlated with morning H-index, wind, and temperature, and positively correlated with pressure and evening humidity, whereas it was not correlated with estrogen. In conclusion, female parade was a successful method to evaluate and stimulate the occurrence of housed male dromedary camel sexual activity that resulted to be negatively affected by hot temperature, warm wind, and lack of rain.

Concepts: Gender, Human behavior, Livestock, Camel, Dromedary, Camelid, Australian feral camel, Camelids

27

A two-month trial was conducted to investigate the effects of pelleting rations with 70:30, 65:35, and 60:40 concentrate to high-quality roughage (alfalfa hay) ratios on hematological and biochemical parameters of ostriches. A total of 18 seven-month-old male ostrich chicks, initially weighing an average of 60-70 kg, were distributed into three different outdoor paddocks at a stocking density of six birds per paddock. In the morning, blood collection was made from the wing vein after about 12 h of fasting. All rations resulted in no significant change in hematological parameters. However, with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio tended to be lower (P = 0.089); whereas the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) tended to be higher (P values 0.069, 0.072 and 0.094, respectively). In terms of plasma biochemical parameters, increasing the ratio of concentrate to alfalfa hay in ostrich diets resulted in significant (P < 0.05) depression in the values of glucose (up to 20.2 %), total cholesterol (up to 19.2 %), creatine kinase (up to 27.9 %), and aspartate aminotransferase (up to 29.9 %). Additionally, the 65:35 or 60:40 rations caused a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (27.9 and 42 %, respectively; P = 0.008) compared to the 70:40 ration. Without exception, no rations affected the values of leukocyte subsets, total protein, albumin, globulin, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein. Based on our results, the concentrate to alfalfa ratio of 60:40 could be suggested as optimum ratio for good health conditions of juvenile ostriches.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Blood, Atherosclerosis, Low-density lipoprotein, High-density lipoprotein, Bird, Ratio, Ostrich

27

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of urea-treated fibrous diets on the intake, nutrient digestibility, performance and haematological parameters of Yankasa rams. A total of 48 Yankasa rams (BW 10.00 ± 1.50 kg; 6-8 months old) were allocated into four treatment groups in a completely randomised design (12 rams per treatment). Animals were placed on complete rations of yam peels, maize bran and rice husk treated with 0, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 % urea. The experiment lasted for 18 weeks. Yankasa rams fed with urea-treated diets had higher feed intake (949.88 and 938.04 g/day for U(15) and U(20), respectively), daily weight gain (227.67 and 181.00 g/day for U(15) and U(20), respectively) and better feed conversion ratio (4.17 and 5.18 for U(15) and U(20), respectively). Rams on urea-treated diets had higher haemoglobin and red blood cell contents and higher weight gains, indicating that urea treatment enhanced nutrient supply and utilisation at the tissue level. It was concluded that urea treatment of fibrous farm by-products is a promising feeding strategy especially during the dry season when there is scarcity of high-quality forages. Addition of 1.5 % urea to roughage diets and farm by-products to form a total mixed ration may preclude the search for supplements.

Concepts: Nutrition, Blood, Red blood cell, Liver, Anemia, Feed conversion ratio, Bran, Chaff

27

To study the effect of feeding calcium hydroxide-treated or vitamin E-supplemented cottonseed meal (CSM) incorporated diets on plasma gossypol, blood parameters and animal performance, 24 male Bikaneri lambs of 6-7 months of age and of uniform body weight were divided into four groups of six animals each in a completely randomized design and respectively fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures containing 20 % soybean meal (CON) or 40 % raw CSM (RCSM), 40 % raw CSM supplemented with 500 IU of vitamin E per head per day (ERCSM), and 40 %, 1.5 % calcium hydroxide-treated CSM (CaCSM) along with ad libitum wheat straw throughout 510 days of experimental feeding. The lambs on all the diets grew linearly throughout the experimental period. The total weight gain, in turn the average daily gain (ADG), was not affected by dietary variations. The daily intake of dry matter, crude protein (CP), digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were found comparable among lambs of all the groups. Though total gossypol intake was similar in RCSM, ECSM and CaCSM groups, however, free gossypol intake was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in RCSM, ECSM groups as compared to CaCSM group. Serum iron and blood hemoglobin levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in RCSM group as compared to CaCSM and CON groups, and ALT activity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher on RCSM group as compared to other groups. Plasma gossypol and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in RCSM group as compared to CaCSM and ERCSM groups. However, there was no significant difference in the concentration of other blood/serum biochemical constituents among the lambs on different groups. Based on the results, it may be concluded that feeding of 40 % CSM in the concentrate mixture of the diet in Bikaneri lambs did not have any major adverse effect in blood parameters and animal performance. Either calcium hydroxide treatment or vitamin E supplementation did not produce any major additional benefits.

Concepts: Hemoglobin, Protein, Nutrition, Blood, Red blood cell, Statistical significance, Food, Calcium hydroxide

27

A study was conducted to isolate bacterial species/pathogens from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy and pneumonic sheep. Nasal swabs were collected aseptically, transported in tryptose soya broth and incubated for 24 h. Then, each swab was streaked onto chocolate and blood agar for culture. Bacterial species were identified following standard bacteriological procedures. Accordingly, a total of 1,556 bacteria were isolated from 960 nasal swabs collected from three different highland areas of Ethiopia, namely Debre Berhan, Asella, and Gimba. In Debre Berhan, 140 Mannheimia haemolytica, 81 Histophilus somni, 57 Staphylococcus species, and 52 Bibersteinia trehalosi were isolated. While from Gimba M. haemolytica, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and H. somni were isolated at rates of 25.2, 15.9, 11.4, and 5.9 %, respectively, of the total 647 bacterial species. In Asella from 352 bacterial species isolated, 93 (26.4 %) were M. haemolytica, 48 (13.6 %) were Staphylococcus species, 26 (7.4 %) were B. trehalosi, and 17 (4.8 %) H. somni were recognized. Further identification and characterization using BIOLOG identification system Enterococcus avium and Sphingomonas sanguinis were identified at 100 % probability, while, H. somni and Actinobacillus lignerisii were suggested by the system. The study showed that a variety of bacterial species colonize the nasal cavity of the Ethiopian highland sheep with variable proportion between healthy and pneumonic ones. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of H. somni, an important pathogen in cattle, from the respiratory tract of a ruminant species in the country.

Concepts: Bacteria, Ethiopia, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Respiratory system, Enterococcus, Firmicutes, History of Ethiopia