Journal: Toxicology letters
The relation between Lead (Pb) and iron (Fe) becomes increasingly concerned because they are both divalent metals that are absorbed by the same intestinal mechanism, and Pb exposure and Fe deficiency in the developmental brain, as well as Fe overload in the aged brain, can cause cognitive deficits. However, the interaction between Pb exposure and Fe status in the brain has not been established. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effects of maternal ingestion of Pb in drinking water during gestation and lactation on the Fe status and the expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FP1) in the brain of offspring. The offspring were followed through old age, with measurements taken at postnatal week 3, 41 and 70. Pb exposure increases the Fe content in the old-aged rats' brain, Which might be not subjected to DMT1 mediating, but may be associated with the decrease expression of FP1. Furthermore, the effect of Pb on FP1 expression is regulated at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The perturbation in Fe homeostasis may contribute to the neurotoxicology consequences induced by Pb exposure, and FP1 may play a role in Pb-induced Fe cumulation in the brain.
Esters of phthalic acid are chemical agents used to improve the plasticity of industrial polymers. Their ubiquitous use in multiple commercial products results in extensive exposure to humans and the environment. This study investigated cytotoxicity, endocrine disruption, effects mediated via AhR, lipid peroxidation and effects on expression of enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism caused by di-(2-ethy hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) in developing fish embryos. Oxidative stress was identified as the critical mechanism of toxicity (CMTA) in the case of DEHP and DEP, while the efficient removal of DBP and BBP by phase 1 enzymes resulted in lesser toxicity. DEHP and DEP did not mimic estradiol (E(2)) in transactivation studies, but at concentrations of 10mg/L synthesis of sex steroid hormones was affected. Exposure to 10mg BBP/L resulted in weak transactivation of the estrogen receptor (ER). All phthalates exhibited weak potency as agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The order of potency of the 4 phthalates studied was; DEHP>DEP>BBP>DBP. The study highlights the need for simultaneous assessment of (1) multiple cellular targets affected by phthalates and (2) phthalate mixtures to account for additive effects when multiple phthalates modulate the same pathway. Such cumulative assessment of multiple biological parameters is more realistic, and offers the possibility of more accurately identifying the CMTA.
Current treatments of organophosphorus nerve agents poisoning are imperfect, and more efficient medical countermeasures need to be developed. Chemical scavengers based on β-cyclodextrin displayed promising results, but further investigations have to be performed to evaluate the possibility of application of substituted cyclodextrins as potential detoxification agents. Herein, five new cyclodextrins scavengers were synthesized. New optimal conditions for regioselectively monosubstitution of β-cyclodextrin at O-2 position were then studied to access to key intermediates. After these optimizations, a new series of three permethylated derivatives was developed, and two compounds bearing an α-nucleophilic group via a three carbon atoms linker were prepared. The ability of these five scavengers to detoxify nerve agents (cyclosarin, soman, tabun and VX) was evaluated by a semi-quantitative biological assay. All the modified cyclodextrins significantly decreased the inhibitory effect of chemical warfare G agents on acetylcholinesterase activity. For this purpose, we showed that the specific interactions between the organophosphorus compound and the oligosaccharidic moiety of the scavenger played a pivotal role in the detoxification process.
This study was designed to investigate the modulatory effects of submicron and nanosized iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)) particles on the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced immune Th2 response in BALB/c mice. Particles were intratracheally administered four times to mice before and during the OVA sensitization period. For each particle type, three different doses, namely 4×100, 4×250 or 4×500μg/mouse, were used and for each dose, four groups of mice, i.e. group saline solution (1), OVA (2), particles (3), and OVA plus particles (4), were constituted. Mice exposed to OVA alone exhibited an allergic Th2-dominated response with a consistent increase in inflammatory scores, eosinophil numbers, specific IgE levels and IL-4 production. When the mice were exposed to OVA and to high and intermediate doses of iron oxide submicron- or nanoparticles, the OVA-induced allergic response was significantly inhibited, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophil cell influx and specific IgE levels. However, the low dose (4×100μg) of submicron particles had no significant effect on the OVA allergic response while the same dose of nanoparticles had an adjuvant effect on the Th2 response to OVA. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the pulmonary immune response to OVA is a sensitive target for intratracheally instilled particles. Depending on the particle dose and size, the allergic response was suppressed or enhanced.
Exposure to lead (Pb) can induce kidney damage, which is related to induction of oxidative damage and disturbance of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Pb can readily permeate through dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channels and accumulate within cells. The objective of this study was to investigate protective effects of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) verapamil and nimodipine on nephrotoxicity induced by Pb acetate in mice. One hundred twenty male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: control, Pb, low-dose verapamil, high-dose verapamil, low-dose nimodipine and high-dose nimodipine (n=20 per group). Pb acetate was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 40mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to establish the Pb toxicity model. While control mice received saline, mice of the treated groups simultaneously received i.p. injections of verapamil or nimodipine daily for 10 days. Both verapamil and nimodipine showed protection against Pb-induced kidney injury, including alleviation of renal pathological damage and decreasing the level of Pb in kidney homogenate and extent of apoptosis in nephrocytes. Moreover, verapamil and nimodipine significantly down-regulated levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum. In addition, verapamil and nimodipine administration decreased malondialdehyde content and increased activities of super oxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase in the kidney homogenate. The findings in the present study implicate the therapeutic potential of CCBs for Pb-induced nephrotoxicity, which were at least partly due to the decrease of Pb uptake and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
The daily intakes (DI) were estimated in a Belgian general population for 5 phthalates, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), based on the urinary measurements of their corresponding metabolites. DI values ranged between