Journal: Thrombosis research
COVID-19 may predispose to both venous and arterial thromboembolism due to excessive inflammation, hypoxia, immobilisation and diffuse intravascular coagulation. Reports on the incidence of thrombotic complications are however not available.
The diagnostic work-up for heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) can take several days. Consequently patients may be speculatively switched onto replacement anticoagulant therapy before a diagnosis is confirmed. On-demand immunoassay diagnostic testing enables timely treatment decisions, based on test results.
We recently reported a high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of three Dutch hospitals. In answering questions raised regarding our study, we updated our database and repeated all analyses.
Few data are available on the rate and characteristics of thromboembolic complications in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
COVID-19 infection is associated with D-dimer elevations, high rates of thrombus formation, and poor clinical outcomes. We sought to determine if empiric therapeutic anticoagulation (AC) affected survival in COVID-19 patients compared to standard prophylactic AC.
Host cell lines used for recombinant protein expression differ in their ability to perform post-translational modifications (PTMs). The currently available recombinant human FVIII (rhFVIII) products are produced in mammalian, non-human cell lines. For rhFVIII, glycosylation and sulfation are vital for functionality and von Willebrand factor (VWF)-binding affinity. Here we present the characterisation of the PTMs of a novel, human cell line-derived recombinant human FVIII (human-cl rhFVIII). rhFVIII expression in a human cell line avoids expression of undesirable mammalian glycoforms like Galα1-3Galβ1-GlcNAc-R (α-Gal) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), which constitute epitopes antigenic to humans.
Idiopathic avascular necrosis (AVN) of bone causes significant morbidity in adults although the pathophysiology is unknown. The present treatment options include systemic biphosphonate therapy and local bone drilling decompression, ameliorating the healing process and their by render the weight bearing femur head less vulnerable to collapse. In the present study we demonstrate the involvement of heparanase in AVN and in the acceptable treatments.
INTRODUCTION: Warfarin treatment with a high time in therapeutic range (TTR) is correlated to fewer complications. The TTR in Sweden is generally high but varies partly depending on local expertise and traditions. A dosing algorithm could minimize variations and increase treatment quality. Here we evaluate the performance of a computerized dosing algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 53.779 warfarin treated patients from 125 centers using the Swedish national quality registry AuriculA. If certain criteria are met, the algorithm gives one of seven possible dose suggestions, which can be unchanged, decreased or increased weekly dose by 5, 10 or 15%. The outcome evaluated by the resulting INR value was compared between dose suggestions arising from the algorithm that were accepted and those that were manually changed. There were no randomization, and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Both the algorithm-based and the manually changed doses had worse outcome if only two instead of three previous INR values were available. The algorithm suggestions were superior to manual dosing regarding percent samples within the target range 2-3 (hit-rate) or deviation from INR 2.5 (mean error). Of the seven possible outcomes from the algorithm, six were significantly superior and one equal to the manually changed doses when three previous INR:s were present. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm-based dosing suggestions show better outcome in most cases. This can make dosing of warfarin easier and more efficient. There are however cases where manual dosing fares better. Here the algorithm will be improved to further enhance its dosing performance in the future.
INTRODUCTION: Hyperfibrinolysis is observed during and immediately after major orthopedic surgery. The kinetics and duration of this phase should be defined to adjust the duration of antifibrinolytic treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the duration of postoperative fibrinolysis and to assess the biological impact of TXA administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) and 10 patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) with tourniquet were included in an observational, prospective, single-center study. Among these patients, 7 THR patients and 5 TKR patients received TXA (15mg/kg IV intraoperatively, followed by continuous infusion of 15mg/kg/h until end of surgery, then every 4hours until 16±2hours after surgery). D-dimers, euglobulin lysis time (ELT), and thrombin generation time (TGT) were measured prior to surgery as well as 6, 18 and 24hours (H) after. RESULTS: No significant difference in ELT was observed between the groups. In contrast, D-dimers significantly increased postoperatively in patients not treated with TXA (p<0.001), while such an increase was prevented in patients receiving TXA, as measured at H0, H6, H18 and H24 after THR, and at H6 and H18 after TKR (p<0.001). No significant between-group change in TGT, was observed (peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential) all along the study. CONCLUSION: This study shows that fibrinolysis peaked 6hours after end of surgery and maintained about 18hours after surgery, as evidenced by an increase in D-dimers. When administered for up to 16±2hours after surgery, TXA reduced postoperative fibrinolysis.
Apart from TTP, ADAMTS13 may be an important player in those conditions where Von Willebrand Factor and the Platelet Glycoprotein GP Ib axis have a part to play in the pathogenesis. This includes stroke, myocardial infarction, sepsis and inflammatory condition. This article reviews the literature in these conditions.