SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Thoracic surgery clinics

28

Benign pleural effusions are twice as common as malignant effusions and have diverse causes and manifestations, which often makes them a diagnostic challenge. Differentiating effusions as a transudate or exudate is the first, and often helpful, step in directing investigations for diagnosis and management. Congestive heart failure and hepatic hydrothorax are the commonest causes for a transudative effusion. Commonly exudative effusions are caused by infections or may be secondary to pulmonary embolism, drugs, collagen vascular diseases, or may follow cardiac surgery. This article gives an overview of the causes and management of common benign pleural effusions.

Concepts: Cardiology, Heart failure, Heart, Pleural effusion, Pulmonary artery, Exudate, Transudate, Rivalta test

28

Most cases of hemothorax are related to blunt or penetrating chest trauma. Criteria for surgical intervention for initial hemothorax are well defined. Appropriate management of retained hemothorax following initial trauma management is critical, and the best approach remains controversial. Spontaneous hemothorax is much less common and results from a variety of pathologic processes. This article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic and spontaneous hemothorax in modern practice.

Concepts: Pathology, Hospital, Surgery, Pulmonary contusion, Medical diagnosis, Psychological trauma, Hemothorax, Chest trauma

1

No definitive solution has been discovered for replacing long segments or the entire trachea in humans. Most of this challenge stems from the specific function and mechanics that are almost impossible to replicate except in the setting of an allotransplantation, which requires lifelong immunosuppressive medication. Recently, tissue engineering provided significant evidence concerning the next promising therapeutic alternative for tracheal replacement. Underlying mechanism and pathways of cell-surface interactions, cell migration, and differentiation are essential to understand the complexity of tracheal tissue regeneration. Tracheal replacement remains challenging but initial steps toward an ideal therapeutic concept have been made.

Concepts: Medicine, Cell, Function, Developmental biology, Cellular differentiation, Regeneration, Cognition, Polynomial

0

Tuberculosis (TB) parallels the history of human development from the Stone Age to the present. TB continues to be in the top 10 causes of global human mortality over that period. This article highlights the history of pulmonary TB from the onset of human existence to the present. Despite its long history, TB was slowly identified as a major cause of disease, and defined causation and significant treatment strategies advances over the past 150 years. TB remains a major challenge for definitive global prevention and cure. This article gives a brief overview of the history of TB.

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death worldwide from a single bacterial pathogen. The World Health Organization estimates that annually 1 million children have tuberculosis (TB) disease and many more harbor a latent form. Accurate estimates are hindered by under-recognition and challenges in diagnosis. To date, an accurate diagnostic test to confirm TB in children does not exist. Treatment is lengthy but outcomes are generally favorable with timely initiation. With the End TB Strategy, there is an urgent need for improved diagnostics and treatment to prevent the unnecessary morbidity and mortality from TB in children.

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An estimated 1.7 billion (23%) of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis leading to more than 10 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases each year. TB is one of the top 10 causes of death globally and is the leading cause of death from a single infectious disease agent. The World Health Organization’s ambitious End TB Strategy aims to achieve a 95% reduction in TB deaths and 90% reduction in TB incidence rates by 2035.

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Tuberculosis (TB) remains a common cause of infection and disease in much of the world. The majority of disease occurs from reactivation months or years after initial infection and most often involves the lungs. Sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli remain the initial diagnostic test but have limited sensitivity and specificity. Nucleic acid amplification tests are more sensitive and specific and can detect some mutations that cause drug resistance. Treatment of TB resistant to rifamycins alone or in combination with isoniazid and other drugs remains difficult and should be done in consultation with an expert in treating drug-resistant disease.

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Surgery for tuberculosis is becoming more relevant today. This article discusses the main indications, contraindications, features of operations, and perioperative period. This information is useful for practicing surgeons and specialists in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

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Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), extensively drug-resistant TB, and TB-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection require a special approach in anti-TB treatment. Most patients cannot be successfully cured by conventional chemotherapy alone. They need a modern approach using minimally invasive therapeutic and surgical techniques. The novel approaches of collapse therapy techniques and minimally invasive osteoplastic thoracoplasty increase the effectiveness of complex anti-TB therapy. Achieving the required selective collapse of lung tissue in destructive pulmonary TB, especially in cases of drug resistance and/or HIV coinfection, leads to bacteriologic conversion, cavity closure, and successful cure.

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This article reviews the current epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease and the impact on thoracic disease. The prevalence of nontuberculous pulmonary disease in the United States is much higher than that of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Estimates support an annual increase in incidence of 8% per year. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are distinguished by 2 group designations, slowly growing mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium avium complex, and rapidly growing mycobacteria, which includes Mycobacterium abscessus. Most pulmonary infections in humans are caused by species belonging to M avium complex. This article also reviews risk factors for disease acquisition, including host and environmental risk factors.