SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Thoracic surgery clinics

28

Benign pleural effusions are twice as common as malignant effusions and have diverse causes and manifestations, which often makes them a diagnostic challenge. Differentiating effusions as a transudate or exudate is the first, and often helpful, step in directing investigations for diagnosis and management. Congestive heart failure and hepatic hydrothorax are the commonest causes for a transudative effusion. Commonly exudative effusions are caused by infections or may be secondary to pulmonary embolism, drugs, collagen vascular diseases, or may follow cardiac surgery. This article gives an overview of the causes and management of common benign pleural effusions.

Concepts: Cardiology, Heart failure, Heart, Pleural effusion, Pulmonary artery, Exudate, Transudate, Rivalta test

28

Most cases of hemothorax are related to blunt or penetrating chest trauma. Criteria for surgical intervention for initial hemothorax are well defined. Appropriate management of retained hemothorax following initial trauma management is critical, and the best approach remains controversial. Spontaneous hemothorax is much less common and results from a variety of pathologic processes. This article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic and spontaneous hemothorax in modern practice.

Concepts: Pathology, Hospital, Surgery, Pulmonary contusion, Medical diagnosis, Psychological trauma, Hemothorax, Chest trauma

1

No definitive solution has been discovered for replacing long segments or the entire trachea in humans. Most of this challenge stems from the specific function and mechanics that are almost impossible to replicate except in the setting of an allotransplantation, which requires lifelong immunosuppressive medication. Recently, tissue engineering provided significant evidence concerning the next promising therapeutic alternative for tracheal replacement. Underlying mechanism and pathways of cell-surface interactions, cell migration, and differentiation are essential to understand the complexity of tracheal tissue regeneration. Tracheal replacement remains challenging but initial steps toward an ideal therapeutic concept have been made.

Concepts: Medicine, Cell, Function, Developmental biology, Cellular differentiation, Regeneration, Cognition, Polynomial

0

In Western countries, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased rapidly in parallel with its premalignant condition, Barrett esophagus (BE). Unlike colonoscopy, endoscopic screening for BE is not currently recommended for all patients; however, surveillance endoscopy is advocated for patients with established BE. Novel imaging and sampling techniques have been developed and investigated for the purpose of improving the detection of Barrett esophagus, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This article discusses several screening and surveillance techniques, including Seattle protocol, chromoendoscopy, electronic chromoendoscopy, wide area transepithelial sampling with 3-dimensional analysis, nonendoscopic sampling devices, and transnasal endoscopy.

0

Barrett’s esophagus (BE) may progress to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The value of Barrett’s surveillance with random biopsies is being questioned, but new technologies may enhance detection of progression within BE and guide endoscopic resection and ablation techniques. This review will focus on optical coherence tomography and endomicroscopy for patients with BE.

0

Patients with esophageal intestinal metaplasia, or Barrett’s esophagus, may undergo dysplastic changes that eventually lead to invasive adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic therapy in the form of radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation has been described as a minimally invasive intervention to halt this sequence of dysplasia to carcinoma. Studies demonstrate that the use of radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation is highly successful at eradicating intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia and reducing the risk of disease progression. Furthermore, these modalities also may be used in combination with endoscopic mucosal resection, or as stand-alone therapy, for the treatment of intramucosal carcinoma, potentially circumventing the need for surgery.

0

The article is a review of the principles behind endoscopic resection of esophageal dysplasia and early cancers. The techniques of endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection are reviewed, and the supporting literature compared. Endoscopic resection is compared with esophagectomy for the management of these lesions and current areas of controversy with regard to T1b lesions and gastroesophageal reflux following resection are addressed.

0

Peroral endoscopic myotomy surgery is an incisionless, minimally invasive, natural orifice technique used to treat the symptoms of achalasia and other spastic disorders of the esophagus. Recent experience demonstrates that it can be performed safely by experienced esophageal surgeons and there are very good short-term outcomes comparable to laparoscopic myotomy. The rapid worldwide adoption of this technique demonstrates its potential to replace the current therapies available for achalasia. A cautionary note is important in that long-term outcomes are not yet available in terms of dysphagia and GERD symptoms.

0

Endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy has been demonstrated to be a safe and efficacious procedure with favorable outcomes for the treatment of cricopharyngeal dysfunction with or without Zenker diverticulum. It is a less invasive approach with decreased morbidity compared with the open approach and minimal reported complications. Peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy is a novel technique for the treatment of gastroparesis. It has shown promising results in terms of its safety, complication profile, and symptom improvement in a minimally invasive approach that is appealing to many patients. As further data emerge on the technique, long-term efficacy of the procedure will be better understood.

0

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common affliction in Western society. In patients in whom GERD is resistant to medical therapy or who desire nonpharmacological definitive therapy, several surgical interventions are available. The most common and traditional surgical therapy is partial or complete gastric fundoplication; however, new alternatives, including the magnetic augmentation system LINX and EndoStim device, are increasingly common and efficacious.