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Journal: Therapeutics and clinical risk management


Morquio A syndrome is a lysosomal storage disease associated with mucopolysaccharidosis. It is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, which leads to accumulation of keratan sulfate and condroitin-6 sulfate in multiple organs. Patients present with multisystemic complications involving the musculoskeletal, respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive systems. Presently, there is no definitive cure, and current management options are palliative. Enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell therapy have been proven effective in certain lysosomal storage diseases, and current investigations are underway to evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies and others for the treatment of Morquio A syndrome. This review discusses the current and emerging treatment options for Morquio A syndrome, citing examples of the treatment of other mucopolysaccharidoses.

Concepts: Cell, Lysosomal storage disease, Therapy, Mucopolysaccharidosis, Lysosomal storage diseases, Morquio syndrome


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen have a long history of safe and effective use as both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics/antipyretics. The mechanism of action of all NSAIDs is through reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including gastrointestinal bleeding as well as cardiovascular and renal effects have been reported with NSAID use. In many cases, ADRs may occur because of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between the NSAID and a concomitant medication. For example, DDIs have been reported when NSAIDs are coadministered with aspirin, alcohol, some antihypertensives, antidepressants, and other commonly used medications. Because of the pharmacologic nature of these interactions, there is a continuum of risk in that the potential for an ADR is dependent on total drug exposure. Therefore, consideration of dose and duration of NSAID use, as well as the type or class of comedication administered, is important when assessing potential risk for ADRs. Safety findings from clinical studies evaluating prescription-strength NSAIDs may not be directly applicable to OTC dosing. Health care providers can be instrumental in educating patients that using OTC NSAIDs at the lowest effective dose for the shortest required duration is vital to balancing efficacy and safety. This review discusses some of the most clinically relevant DDIs reported with NSAIDs based on major sites of ADRs and classes of medication, with a focus on OTC ibuprofen, for which the most data are available.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Cyclooxygenase, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Analgesic, Naproxen


The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1) the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2) reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3) chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine). Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ≥100 mg morphine daily) should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density.

Concepts: Central nervous system, Osteoporosis, Bone, Opioid, Morphine, Buprenorphine, Methadone, Tramadol


Coadministration of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DHP-CCBs) with statins (or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitors) is common for patients with hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. To reduce the risk of myopathy, in 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Drug Safety Communication set a new dose limitation for simvastatin, for patients taking simvastatin concomitantly with amlodipine. However, there is no such dose limitation for atorvastatin for patients receiving amlodipine. The combination pill formulation of amlodipine/atorvastatin is available on the market. There been no systematic review of the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction (DDI) profile of DHP-CCBs with statins, the underlying mechanisms for DDIs of different degree, or the corresponding management of clinical risk.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Hypertension, Angina pectoris, Statin, Management, Calcium channel blocker, Hypercholesterolemia, HMG-CoA reductase


To analyze and compare the signals of bleeding from the use of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database over 5 years.



Gastric (GC) and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancers are two global health problems with a relatively high mortality, particularly in the advanced stage. Inhibition of angiogenesis is now contemplated as a classic treatment preference for myriad tumor types encompassing renal cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, and ovarian cancer, among others. Bevacizumab and ramucirumab have been widely investigated in GC and GEJ cancer, with some controversy about their therapeutic role. Ramucirumab is a monoclonal antibody for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, with demonstrated activity both as a monotherapy and as a part of combination strategy in the management of advanced GC/GEJ cancer. In this review article, we present a critical evaluation of the preclinical and clinical data underlying the use of this drug in this indication. Moreover, we provide a spotlight on the future perspectives in systemic therapy for advanced GC/GEJ cancer.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Colorectal cancer, Adenocarcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Bevacizumab


In the study reported here, single-tablet regimen (STR) versus (vs) multi-tablet regimen (MTR) strategies were evaluated through a cost analysis in a large cohort of patients starting their first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1-naïve patients, followed at the San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy, starting their first-line regimen from June 2008 to April 2012 were included in the analysis.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Protease inhibitor, Viral load, Antiviral drug, Milan


Despite the increase in adult emergency department (ED) utilization in Saudi Arabia, no studies have evaluated the 72-hour revisits. This study estimates the rate of 72-hour ED revisits and identifies its reasons and predictive factors among adults with chronic diseases.


Pneumonia is the most common infectious cause of mortality in children worldwide. Chest x-ray (CXR) has been used as a supplementary mode in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children, but its frequent use might expose children to unnecessary ionizing radiation. In this review, we present up-to-date data of an alternative mode of imaging other than CXR in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children. We found that lung ultrasound is a safe and accurate mode of imaging that can be used by a health care provider in the cases of suspected pneumonia. It is more sensitive than CXR in the diagnosis of pneumonia and obviates the need for irradiation.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Cancer, Ionizing radiation, X-ray, Pneumonia, Radiobiology