SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Therapeutic drug monitoring

28

: The influence of the conversion from cyclosporine (CsA) to everolimus (EVR) on the chronopharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its glucuronide (MPAG) and acyl glucuronide (acyl-MPAG) metabolites in patients receiving enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) has not been studied.

Concepts: Organ transplant, Kidney transplantation, Transplant rejection, Immunosuppressants, Mycophenolic acid, Mycophenolate mofetil, Novartis

27

Lacosamide (LCM) is one of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) licensed as add-on treatment for partial epilepsy. Data on LCM pharmacokinetics and interactions are limited and partly contradictory. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of concomitant AED therapy on steady state plasma concentrations of LCM in a population of patients with epilepsy.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Epilepsy, Anticonvulsant, Lamotrigine

27

: Psychoactive drugs of fungal origin, psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol among them have been proposed for recreational use and popularized since the 1960s, XX century. Despite their well-documented neurotoxicity, they reached reputation of being safe and nonaddictive. Scientific efforts to find any medical application for these hallucinogens in psychiatry, psychotherapy, and even for religious rituals support are highly controversial. Even if they show any healing potential, their usage in psychotherapy is in some cases inadequate and may additionally harm seriously suffering patients. Hallucinogens are thought to reduce cognitive functions. However, in case of indolealkylamines, such as psilocin, some recent findings suggest their ability to improve perception and mental skills, what would motivate the consumption of “magic mushrooms.” The present article offers an opportunity to find out what are the main symptoms of intoxication with mushrooms containing psilocybin/psilocin, muscimol, and ibotenic acid. The progress in analytical methods for detection of them in fungal material, food, and body fluids is reviewed. Findings on the mechanisms of their biologic activity are summarized. Additionally, therapeutic potential of these fungal psychoactive compounds and health risk associated with their abuse are discussed.

Concepts: Drug, Cognition, Psychoactive drug, Recreational drug use, Psychedelic drug, Amanita muscaria, Psilocybin, Muscimol

27

: Since 2007, a number of transplantation centers have been routinely using an expert system for tacrolimus (TAC) dose adjustment in kidney allograft recipients, based on PK modeling and Bayesian estimation for area-under-the-curve (AUC) determination. This has allowed the setting up of a large database of TAC pharmacokinetic profiles and AUC values, a part of which was analyzed here.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Estimation theory, Diabetic nephropathy, Artificial intelligence, Organ transplant, Kidney transplantation

27

: Retrospective studies have identified elevated vancomycin trough levels >20 mg/L as a predictor of nephrotoxicity with a high variable incidence of 12.6%-65%. However, the elevated levels may represent the effect of renal compromise rather than the cause of nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to report the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and associated risk factors in adult patients with vancomycin trough levels >20 mg/L in a prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at a Hospital.

Concepts: Renal failure, Kidney, Nephrology, Hospital, Medical statistics, Acute kidney injury, Vancomycin, Cultural studies

27

: Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and is an important circadian phase marker, especially in the determination of sleep patterns. Both temporary and permanent abnormal sleep patterns occur in children; therefore, it is desirable to have methods for monitoring melatonin in biological fluids in the diagnosis and treatment of such disorders.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep disorder, Pineal gland, Circadian rhythm, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Glands, Chronotype, Melatonin

27

: To identify whether therapeutic hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy affects gentamicin pharmacokinetics.

Concepts: Infant, Hypothermia, Neurology, Hypoxia, Cerebral hypoxia, Hypothermia therapy for neonatal encephalopathy

27

: “Driving under the influence of drugs” (DUID) has a large impact on the worldwide mortality risk. Therefore, DUID legislations based on impairment or analytical limits are adopted. Drug detection in oral fluid is of interest due to the ease of sampling during roadside controls. The prevalence of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in seriously injured drivers ranges from 0.5% to 7.6% in Europe. For these reasons, the quantification of THC in oral fluid collected with 3 alternative on-site collectors is presented and discussed in this publication.

Concepts: Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabis, Cannabidiol, Recreational drug use

26

Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the method of choice for the determination of everolimus whole blood concentrations, but is not always available. Therefore, immunoassays have been developed for clinical monitoring of everolimus. In previous studies, the QMS immunoassay had a positive bias compared to LC-MS/MS, but was judged acceptable, although clinical agreement (e.g. 95% limits of agreement) was not reported. The objective of this study was to assess whether the agreement between the QMS assay and an LC-MS/MS method was clinically acceptable for use interchangeably in therapeutic everolimus monitoring.

Concepts: Protein, Blood, ELISA, Assay, Chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Immunoassay

26

Both aripiprazole and haloperidol have been used in the treatment of schizophrenia, and are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP3A4. The authors studied the correlations between the steady-state plasma concentrations (Css) of aripiprazole and its active metabolite, dehydroaripiprazole, and those of haloperidol in 19 Japanese patients with schizophrenia, together with the effects of CYP2D6 genotypes on the steady-state kinetics of these compounds.

Concepts: Cytochrome P450