Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The Laryngoscope


The objective of this study was to determine the burden of depressed mood and anxiety in COVID-19, and associated disease characteristics.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of olfactory training (OT) on olfactory function in patients with persistent post-infectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD).

Concepts: Olfactory system


Patients with olfactory dysfunction benefit from repeated exposure to odors, so-called olfactory training (OT). This does not mean occasional smelling but the structured sniffing of a defined set of odors, twice daily, for a period of 4 months or longer. In this prospective study, we investigated whether the effect of OT might increase through the use of more odors and extension of the training period.

Concepts: Extensional definition, Olfaction, Odor, Ovulation, Olfactory fatigue, Electronic nose, Olfactometer, Intensional definition


Objectives: A growing body of evidence indicates that primary snoring (PS) may be the initial presentation of sleep-disordered breathing and can adversely affect an individual’s health. Individuals with the sole diagnosis of PS were evaluated to determine if a relationship exists between snoring and thickening of the intima media of the carotid arteries. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Our institution’s sleep center database identified patients aged 18 to 50 years who had a diagnostic sleep study with apnea-hypopnea index <5 between December 2006 and January 2012. Subjects underwent a diagnostic carotid artery duplex ultrasound measuring the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the bilateral carotid arteries at four separate points. A validated snoring outcomes survey (SOS) was completed and used to categorize "snorers" and "non-snorers." Groups were compared using a student's t-test. Results: Of 913 patients who met inclusion criteria, 54 patients completed both the carotid duplex ultrasound and SOS. There were no statistically significant differences in IMT for the groups defined by smoking or diabetes. Compared to non-snorers, snorers were found to have a significantly greater IMT at two points along the left internal carotid artery and one point on the right side. When considering all 8 points, IMT was significantly greater in snorers. Conclusion: This study shows a relationship between PS and IMT of the carotid arteries. Given the well-described relationship between increased carotid IMT and serious health conditions, non-apneic snoring may be a precursor to changes of the carotid artery intima and should be further investigated.

Concepts: Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery, External carotid artery, Intima-media thickness


Identify contemporary noise exposures and hearing protection use among adults.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state


The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactions between grapefruit juice and montelukast for up to 4 hours.

Concepts: Bioavailability, Grapefruit, Grapefruit juice, Grapefruit spoon


OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) frequently occurs in females over 50 years old, suggesting that a postmenopausal decrease in estrogen secretion might be involved in its onset. An estrogen deficiency is generally known to cause osteoporosis through a reduction in bone mass. This study was designed to investigate a clinical association between idiopathic BPPV and osteoporosis. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: We measured the bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar vertebrae in 61 patients with idiopathic BPPV who were postmenopausal women over 50 years old using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. After being treated with the canalith repositioning maneuver, the patients were followed up for at least 1 year. RESULTS: Our results showed that the incidence of osteoporosis in patients with BPPV was 26.2%, which was similar to those observed in epidemiological surveys conducted in Japan. However, we found that in BPPV patients with osteoporosis, the incidence of recurrence was 56.3%, which was significantly higher than that observed in patients with normal bone mineral density (16.1%). Furthermore, the frequency of BPPV recurrence increased as BMD decreased. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that osteoporosis is a risk factor for BPPV recurrence. The prognosis of BPPV might be clinically predicted by BMD reduction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3b Laryngoscope, 2013.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Epidemiology, Bone density, Skeletal system, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Osteopenia, Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo


To evaluate the use of computer-assisted design and rapid prototype modeling to improve the speed and accuracy of mandibular reconstruction.

Concepts: Mandible, Computer-aided design


It is becoming increasingly important for clinicians to demonstrate the impact of their interventions. The Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) questionnaire is a disease-specific questionnaire involving 22 symptoms combining rhinologic issues with general health issues. We evaluated the SNOT-22 score as a quality-of-life outcome measure in septorhinoplasty surgery.

Concepts: Medicine, SCORE Association


Patulous eustachian tube remains a challenging management problem in otolaryngology. The autophony experienced by this patient population can be severe, and as yet no reliable surgical method exists to reduce or eliminate this annoying symptom. Our objective was to develop a novel endoscopic technique to assist these patients.

Concepts: Auditory system, Eustachian tube, Superior canal dehiscence, Patulous Eustachian tube, Autophony