SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The Lancet. Public health

117

The built environment might be associated with development of obesity and related disorders. We examined whether neighbourhood exposure to fast-food outlets and physical activity facilities were associated with adiposity in UK adults.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Natural environment, Fast food

113

The rising number of young people going to university has led to concerns about an increasing demand for student mental health services. We aimed to assess whether provision of mindfulness courses to university students would improve their resilience to stress.

Concepts: Health care, Randomized controlled trial, University, Positive psychology, Youth, Elasticity, Student, Apophony

106

Some parents supply alcohol to their children, reportedly to reduce harm, yet longitudinal research on risks associated with such supply is compromised by short periods of observation and potential confounding. We aimed to investigate associations between parental supply and supply from other (non-parental) sources, with subsequent drinking outcomes over a 6-year period of adolescence, adjusting for child, parent, family, and peer variables.

Concepts: Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Experimental design, Parent, Childhood, Developmental psychology, Puberty, Mother

76

Low emission zones (LEZ) are an increasingly common, but unevaluated, intervention aimed at improving urban air quality and public health. We investigated the impact of London’s LEZ on air quality and children’s respiratory health.

66

Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood body-mass index (BMI) have been documented in high-income countries; however, uncertainty exists with regard to how they have changed over time, how inequalities in the composite parts (ie, weight and height) of BMI have changed, and whether inequalities differ in magnitude across the outcome distribution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent weight, height, and BMI have changed over time in Britain.

Concepts: Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Research methods, Cohort, Body mass index, United Kingdom

63

Frailty is associated with older age and multimorbidity (two or more long-term conditions); however, little is known about its prevalence or effects on mortality in younger populations. This paper aims to examine the association between frailty, multimorbidity, specific long-term conditions, and mortality in a middle-aged and older aged population.

58

Following the economic crisis in Greece in 2010, the country’s ongoing austerity measures include a substantial contraction of health-care expenditure, with reports of subsequent negative health consequences. A comprehensive evaluation of mortality and morbidity is required to understand the current challenges of public health in Greece.

57

Illicit use of high-potency synthetic opioids has become a global issue over the past decade. This misuse is particularly pronounced in British Columbia, Canada, where a rapid increase in availability of fentanyl and other synthetic opioids in the local illicit drug supply during 2016 led to a substantial increase in overdoses and deaths. In response, distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) overdose prevention kits was scaled up (6·4-fold increase) throughout the province. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the THN programme in terms of the number of deaths averted over the study period.

Concepts: Opioid, Morphine, Heroin, Naloxone, Canada, Buprenorphine, Drug overdose, Vancouver

56

Combinations of lifestyle factors interact to increase mortality. Combinations of traditional factors such as smoking and alcohol are well described, but the additional effects of emerging factors such as television viewing time are not. The effect of socioeconomic deprivation on these extended lifestyle risks also remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether deprivation modifies the association between an extended score of lifestyle-related risk factors and health outcomes.

54

Addressing the causes of low engagement in health care is a prerequisite for reducing health inequalities. People who miss multiple appointments are an under-researched group who might have substantial unmet health needs. Individual-level patterns of missed general practice appointments might thus provide a risk marker for vulnerability and poor health outcomes. We sought to ascertain the contributions of patient and practice factors to the likelihood of missing general practice appointments.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Cohort study, Health economics, Longitudinal study, Clinical trial, Health disparities, Illness