SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The lancet. HIV

650

Health care for people living with HIV has improved substantially in the past two decades. Robust estimates of how these improvements have affected prognosis and life expectancy are of utmost importance to patients, clinicians, and health-care planners. We examined changes in 3 year survival and life expectancy of patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1996 and 2013.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Protease inhibitor, Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Clinical trial

239

Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Protease inhibitor, Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Evaluation, Prevalence

125

Early HIV diagnosis reduces morbidity, mortality, the probability of onward transmission, and their associated costs, but might increase cost because of earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). We investigated this trade-off by estimating the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in primary care.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Health care, Health economics, Costs, Economics, Cost

22

People living with HIV-1 infection are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than seronegative adults. Treatment of dyslipidaemia with statins has been challenging in people with HIV because of an increased potential for drug interactions due to competing cytochrome P450 metabolism between statins and commonly used antiretroviral agents. Neither pitavastatin nor pravastatin depend on cytochrome P450 for primary metabolism. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV and dyslipidaemia.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, Disease, Infectious disease, Metabolism, Statin, Cytochrome P450, Steroid

20

The HIV burden is increasing in older adults in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). We investigated factors associated with HIV diagnosis in older adults in the 31 EU/EEA countries during a 12 year period.

Concepts: European Union, Europe, Norway, European Economic Area

18

Simplified regimens with reduced pill burden and fewer side-effects are desirable for people living with HIV. We investigated the efficacy and safety of switching to a single-tablet regimen of darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide versus continuing a regimen of boosted protease inhibitor, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, Tenofovir

17

In vitro, disulfiram activated HIV transcription in a primary T-cell model of HIV latency and in a pilot clinical study increased plasma HIV RNA in individuals with adequate drug exposure. We assessed the effect of disulfiram on HIV transcription in a dose-escalation study.

Concepts: HIV, Gene, Clinical trial, Infectious disease, Transcription, Virus, Reverse transcriptase, Cytomegalovirus

14

Mounting evidence suggests that laws and policies prohibiting illegal drug use could have a central role in shaping health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). To date, no systematic review has characterised the influence of laws and legal frameworks prohibiting drug use on HIV prevention and treatment.

Concepts: Public health, Drug, Law, Drug addiction, Heroin, Drug injection, Political science, Illegal drug trade

13

The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial.

Concepts: Immune system, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Infection, Cytomegalovirus

9

HIV transmission in men who have sex with men (MSM) in the UK has shown no sign of decreasing in the past decade. Additional prevention measures are needed. We aimed to estimate the effect of various potential interventions implemented individually and in combination on prevention of HIV infection.

Concepts: HIV, AIDS, Sexual intercourse, Mathematics, Human sexual behavior, Fever, Condom, Vaginal lubrication