SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The Lancet. Haematology

71

Global inequalities in access to health care are reflected in differences in cancer survival. The CONCORD programme was designed to assess worldwide differences and trends in population-based cancer survival. In this population-based study, we aimed to estimate survival inequalities globally for several subtypes of childhood leukaemia.

Concepts: Health care, Health, Cancer, Child, Massachusetts, Globalization, Subtype polymorphism, Anarchism

70

Patients with refractory or relapsed haematological malignancies have few treatment options and short survival times. Identification of effective therapies with genomic-based precision medicine is hampered by intratumour heterogeneity and incomplete understanding of the contribution of various mutations within specific cancer phenotypes. Ex-vivo drug-response profiling in patient biopsies might aid effective treatment identification; however, proof of its clinical utility is limited.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Cancer, Patient, Pathology, Illness, Lymphoma, Medical test

27

Substances that potentially enhance performance (eg, recombinant human erythropoietin [rHuEPO]) are considered doping and are therefore forbidden in sports; however, the scientific evidence behind doping is frequently weak. We aimed to determine the effects of rHuEPO treatment in well trained cyclists on maximal, submaximal, and race performance and on safety, and to present a model clinical study for doping research on other substances.

Concepts: Scientific method, Erythropoietin, Clinical trial, Human, The Canon of Medicine, Effectiveness, Avicenna, Placebo

26

Whether compression stockings are effective in the prevention of post thrombotic syndrome in patients with deep vein thrombosis remains unknown. Since the recently published SOX trial, no meta-analysis has been done to re-evaluate the available literature on whether compression stockings are beneficial in these patients. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of elastic compression stockings on preventing post thrombotic syndrome in patients with deep vein thrombosis.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Effect, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Vein, Deep vein thrombosis, Deep vein, Compression stockings

25

Among the syndromes characterised by thrombotic microangiopathy, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is distinguished by a severe deficiency in the ADAMTS13 enzyme. Patients with this disorder need urgent treatment with plasma exchange. Because ADAMTS13 activity testing typically requires prolonged turnaround times and might be unavailable in resource-poor settings, a method to rapidly assess the likelihood of severe ADAMTS13 deficiency is needed.

Concepts: Cohort study, Histopathology, Evaluation methods, Assessment, Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Plasmapheresis, Thrombotic microangiopathy

24

Blood transfusions are an important resource of every health-care system, with often limited supply in low-income and middle-income countries; however, the degree of unmet need for blood transfusions is often unknown. We therefore aimed to estimate the blood transfusion need and supply at national level to determine gaps in transfusion services globally.

23

The efficacy and safety of lenalidomide as maintenance therapy after chemotherapy-based second-line therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is unknown. Although kinase inhibitors can improve outcomes for some patients with relapsed and refractory disease, not all patients have access to these novel drugs. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide as maintenance therapy in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Cancer, Disease, Medical terms, Randomized controlled trial, Cure, Leukemia

22

Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a major cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality in countries with well developed transfusion services. The International Society of Blood Transfusion, the International Haemovigilance Network, and AABB (formerly American Association of Blood Banks), have developed and validated a revised definition of TACO.

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Previously, we demonstrated that the addition of anti-human-T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATLG) to standard ciclosporin and methotrexate prophylaxis reduced graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in adult patients treated with allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation from matched unrelated donors without negatively affecting relapse and survival. Since reports on long-term results from randomised trials testing anti-thymocyte globulin are scarce, we performed an extended follow-up of the trial.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Graft-versus-host disease, The Trial