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Journal: The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology

333

Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabolic profiles of urine samples developed under controlled feeding conditions reflect dietary intake and can be used to model and classify dietary patterns of free-living populations.

Concepts: Nutrition, Eating, Food, Implementation

259

Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with bone mass of offspring in many, but not all, observational studies. However, maternal vitamin D repletion during pregnancy has not yet been proven to improve offspring bone mass in a randomised controlled trial. We aimed to assess whether neonates born to mothers supplemented with vitamin D during pregnancy have greater whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) at birth than those of mothers who had not received supplementation.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Fetus, Randomized controlled trial, Breastfeeding

245

Diabetes and high body-mass index (BMI) are associated with increased risk of several cancers, and are increasing in prevalence in most countries. We estimated the cancer incidence attributable to diabetes and high BMI as individual risk factors and in combination, by country and sex.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Medical statistics, Risk, The Canon of Medicine, Obesity, Body mass index, Squamous cell carcinoma

221

Type 1 diabetes is typically considered a disease of children and young adults. Genetic susceptibility to young-onset type 1 diabetes is well defined and does not predispose to type 2 diabetes. It is not known how frequently genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes leads to a diagnosis of diabetes after age 30 years. We aimed to investigate the frequency and phenotype of type 1 diabetes resulting from high genetic susceptibility in the first six decades of life.

144

Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Socioeconomic status, Sociology, Social status, Working time

92

The effectiveness of low-fat diets for long-term weight loss has been debated for decades, with many randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and recent reviews giving mixed results. We aimed to summarise the large body of evidence from RCTs to determine whether low-fat diets contribute to greater weight loss than participants' usual diet, low-carbohydrate diets, and other higher-fat dietary interventions.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Nutrition, Obesity, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Meta-analysis, Diets

89

Physical inactivity is a leading cause of obesity and premature mortality. We aimed to examine the relation between active commuting and obesity in mid-life using objectively measured anthropometric data from UK Biobank.

70

Because of the high density of fat, high-fat diets are perceived as likely to lead to increased bodyweight, hence health-care providers are reluctant to recommend them to overweight or obese individuals. We assessed the long-term effects of ad libitum, high-fat, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diets on bodyweight and waist circumference in older people at risk of cardiovascular disease, most of whom were overweight or obese.

Concepts: Cancer, Nutrition, Obesity, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Adipose tissue, Dieting, Mediterranean diet

64

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to disease and dysfunction and incur high associated costs (>1% of the gross domestic product [GDP] in the European Union). Exposure to EDCs varies widely between the USA and Europe because of differences in regulations and, therefore, we aimed to quantify disease burdens and related economic costs to allow comparison.

Concepts: European Union, United States, Republic of Ireland, Gross domestic product

54

Despite the increasing popularity of activity trackers, little evidence exists that they can improve health outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether use of activity trackers, alone or in combination with cash incentives or charitable donations, lead to increases in physical activity and improvements in health outcomes.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Improve, Randomized controlled trial, Avicenna