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Journal: The Korean journal of parasitology


The 5th outbreak of trichinosis occurred in a mountainous area of North Vietnam in 2012, involving 24 patients among 27 people who consumed raw pork together. Six of these patients visited several hospitals in Hanoi for treatment. Similar clinical symptoms appeared in these patients within 5-8 days after eating infected raw pork, which consisted of fever, muscle pain, difficult moving, edema, difficult swallowing, and difficult breathing. ELISA revealed all (6/6) positive reactions against Trichinella spiralis antigen and all cases showed positive biopsy results for Trichinella sp. larvae in the muscle. The larvae detected in the patients were identified as T. spiralis (Vietnamese strain) by the molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3) gene.

Concepts: Vietnamese language, Trichinella spiralis, Cytochrome c, Vietnam, Trichinosis, Hanoi, French Indochina, Cytochrome c oxidase subunit III


The prevalence of foodborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae was investigated in fish from 2 localities of northern Vietnam in 2004-2005. Freshwater fish (9 species) were collected from local markets in Hanoi City (n=76) and Nam Dinh Province (n=79), and were examined for FBT metacercariae using the artificial digestion technique. Adult flukes were obtained from hamsters experimentally infected with the metacercariae at day 8 post-infection. Three (Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum varium) and 6 (Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, P. varium, Stellantchasmus falcatus, and Heterophyopsis continua) species of FBT metacercariae were detected in the 2 regions, respectively. Overall, among the positive fish species, H. pumilio metacercariae were detected in 104 (80.0%) of 130 fish examined (metacercarial density per infected fish; 64.2). C. formosanus metacercariae were found in 37 (40.2%) of 92 fish (metacercarial density; 14.7). P. varium metacercariae were detected in 19 (63.3%) of 30 fish (Anabas testudineus and Mugil cephalus) (metacercarial density; 247.7). S. falcatus metacercariae were found in all 10 M. cephalus examined (metacercarial density; 84.4). H. continua metacercariae (2 in number) were detected in 1 fish of Coilia lindmani. Morphologic characteristics of the FBT metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. The results have demonstrated that various FBT species are prevalent in northen parts of Vietnam.

Concepts: Prevalence, Anabas testudineus, Freshwater fish, Vietnam, Hanoi, Nam Dinh Province, Red River Delta, Ngo Dinh Diem


It has been known that Arak, Salvadora persica, has a number of medicinal properties. We tried to investigate in vitro scolicidal effect of root extracts of this plant against protoscolices from hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. S. persica root extract was used in 10, 30, and 50 mg/ml concentration for 10, 20, and 30 min. The viability of protoscolices was ascertained by 0.1% eosin staining. Scolicidal activity of S. persica extract at a concentration of 10 mg/ml was 36.3%, 50.3%, and 70.8% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. The scolicidal effect of this extract at a concentration of 30 mg/ml was 52.9%, 86.7%, and 100% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. S. persica extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml, meanwhile, killed 81.4%, 100%, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Also, the cytotoxic potential of S. persica was assessed on human liver cells (HepG2) using trypan blue exclusion test. No cytotoxic effect was observed on HepG2 cell line. The present study confirmed for the first time that the ethanolic extract of S. persica has high scolicidal power in vitro. However, in vivo effect of this material remains to be studied for treatment of echinococcosis in humans and herbivorous animals.

Concepts: Liver, In vivo, Glycogen, Bile, In vitro, Peritoneum, Hepatocyte, Salvadora persica


The aim of this cross sectional case control study was to examine the serofrequency and serointensity of Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) IgG, IgM, and DNA among patients with schizophrenia. A total of 101 patients with schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls from Sungai Buloh Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia and University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) were included in this study. The diagnosis of schizophrenia was made based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). The presence of Tg infection was examined using both indirect (ELISA) and direct (quantitative real-time PCR) detection methods by measuring Tg IgG and IgM and DNA, respectively. The serofrequency of Tg IgG antibodies (51.5%, 52/101) and DNA (32.67%, 33/101) among patients with schizophrenia was significantly higher than IgG (18.2%, 10/55) and DNA (3.64%, 2/55) of the controls (IgG, P=0.000, OD=4.8, CI=2.2-10.5; DNA, P=0.000, OD=12.9, CI=2.17-10.51). However, the Tg IgM antibody between patients with schizophrenia and controls was not significant (P>0.005). There was no significant difference (P>0.005) in both serointensity of Tg IgG and DNA between patients with schizophrenia and controls. These findings have further demonstrated the strong association between the active Tg infection and schizophrenia.

Concepts: Immune system, Glycoproteins, Immunology, Antibodies, Schizophrenia, Case-control study, Toxoplasma gondii, Malaysia


Giardia lamblia , an anaerobic, amitochondriate protozoan parasite causes parasitic infection giardiasis in children and young adults. It produces pyruvate, a major metabolic product for its fermentative metabolism. The current study was undertaken to explore the effects of pyruvate as a physiological antioxidant during oxidative stress inGiardiaby cysteine-ascorbate deprivation and further investigation upon the hypothesis that oxidative stress due to metabolism was the reason behind the cytotoxicity. We have estimated intracellular reactive oxygen species generation due to cysteine-ascorbate deprivation inGiardia. In the present study, we have examined the effects of extracellular addition of pyruvate, during oxidative stress generated from cysteine-ascorbate deprivation in culture media on DNA damage inGiardia. The intracellular pyruvate concentrations at several time points were measured in the trophozoites during stress. Trophozoites viability under cysteine-ascorbate deprived (CAD) medium in presence and absence of extracellular pyruvate has also been measured. The exogenous addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of pyruvate to trophozoites suspension was shown to attenuate the rate of ROS generation. We have demonstrated thatGiardiaprotects itself from destructive consequences of ROS by maintaining the intracellular pyruvate concentration. Pyruvate recoversGiardiatrophozoites from oxidative stress by decreasing the number of DNA breaks that might favor DNA repair.

Concepts: Bacteria, Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Antioxidant, Oxidative phosphorylation, Reactive oxygen species, Giardia lamblia, Hydrogen peroxide


In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is expanding and becoming urbanized, especially in non-endemic areas such as the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Considering that infected dogs are the main reservoir for zoonotic VL, this study evaluated the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, a new area of expansion of VL in Brazil. Serum and plasma from 405 asymptomatic dogs from the municipalities of Canoas (n=107), São Leopoldo (n=216), and Novo Hamburgo (n=82) were tested for CVL using immunochromatographic (DPP®) and ELISA EIE®assays (2 assays officially adopted by the Brazilian government for the diagnosis of CVL) and real-time PCR to confirm the results. There was no agreement among serological and real-time PCR results, indicating that theLeishmaniainfection in asymptomatic animals with low parasite load, confirmed by negative parasitological tests (smears and parasite culture), need to be evaluated by molecular methods. The prevalence of LVC in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, confirmed by real-time PCR was 4% (5.6% in Canoas and 4.6% in São Leopoldo). The use of molecular method is essential for accurate diagnosis of CVL, especially in asymptomatic dogs in non-endemic areas.

Concepts: Polymerase chain reaction, Molecular biology, Brazil, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, States of Brazil, White Brazilian, German Brazilian


Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) can be seen in 2 forms, zoonotic and anthroponotic, in Iran. In this study, epidemiological aspects of CL were studied during an 8-year period (2009-2016) in city of Kashan, central Iran. The demographic and epidemiological data, including age, sex, occupation, number and site of the lesions, treatment regimen, past history of CL, and season of all patients were gathered from the health centers. Descriptive statistics were used to describe features of the study data. Total 2,676 people with CL were identified. The highest annual incidence was estimated to be 182 per 100,000 population in 2009 and the least was in 2016 (47 per 100,000 population). The highest frequency affected age groups were observed in 20-29 year-old patients (20.9%). More than 51% of the patients were under 30 years old. The maximum frequency of the disease, 1,134 (43.3%), was seen in autumn. The most common location of lesions was hands (61.4%). Most of the patients (81.6%) were treated by systemic glucantime regimen. In the city of Kashan, the incidence rate of the CL disease is significantly higher than many other regions of Iran. To reduce the risk of disease, control of reservoir hosts and vectors of disease, and education of individual protection are strongly recommended.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Statistics, Demography, Incidence, Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Prevalence, Iran


Molecular techniques have been introduced for malaria diagnosis because they offer greater sensitivity and specificity than microscopic examinations. Therefore, DNA isolation methods have been developed for easy preparation and cost effectiveness. The present study described a simple protocol forPlasmodiumDNA isolation from EDTA-whole blood. This study demonstrated that after heating infected blood samples with Tris-EDTA buffer and proteinase K solution, without isolation and purification steps, the supernatant can be used as a DNA template for amplification by PCR. The sensitivity of the extracted DNA ofPlasmodium falciparumandPlasmodium vivaxwas separately analyzed by both PCR and semi-nested PCR (Sn-PCR). The results revealed that for PCR the limit of detection was 40 parasites/μl forP. falciparumand 35.2 parasites/μl forP. vivax, whereas for Sn-PCR the limit of detection was 1.6 parasites/μl forP. falciparumand 1.4 parasites/μl forP. vivax. This new method was then verified by DNA extraction of whole blood from 11 asymptomatic Myanmar migrant workers and analyzed by Sn-PCR. The results revealed that DNA can be extracted from all samples, and there were 2 positive samples forPlasmodium(P. falciparumandP. vivax). Therefore, the protocol can be an alternative method for DNA extraction in laboratories with limited resources and a lack of trained technicians for malaria diagnosis. In addition, this protocol can be applied for subclinical cases, and this will be helpful for epidemiology and control.

Concepts: DNA, Molecular biology, Sensitivity and specificity


Intestinal parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of Thailand, particularly in rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among the people living in Huai Sai sub-district, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June 2017 to August 2017 which included a total of 224 participants. Stool samples were examined using a simple direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Association between risk factors and intestinal parasitic infections was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 16.1%. Soil-transmitted helminth infections (14.3%) were more common than protozoan infections (1.8%). The most common intestinal parasites were hookworms (6.7%) followed byStrongyloides stercoralis, (5.0%),Ascaris lumbricoides(1.3%) andTrichuris trichiura(1.3%).Entamoeba histolytica/dispar(1.0%),Giardia intestinalis(0.4%), andBlastocystis hominis(0.4%) were the protozoans identified. A high prevalence of infections was found in male participants of ≥40 years who raised dogs in the households and did not wear boots while working fields. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of intestinal parasitic infections with gender with the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.4 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.1-5.2 (P=0.020). The results showed a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections among adults in rural communities which were particularly apparent regarding the skin-penetrating species of nematodes. A greater focus on intervention is required by improving sanitation and personal hygiene to prevent the spread of intestinal parasitic infections.

Concepts: Logistic regression, Epidemiology, Bacteria, Intestinal parasite, Protozoa, Hookworm, Parasitic worm, Chachoengsao Province


The infection status ofClonorchis sinensismetacercariae (CsMc) was examined in freshwater fish from a highly prevalent site, Wicheon (a branch of Nakdong-gang), which is located in Gunwi-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 1,162 fish in 32 species were examined by the artificial digestion method through 6 years. CsMc were detected in 720 (67.5%) out of 1,067 fish (26 spp.) and their density was 610 per fish infected. In the susceptible gobioninid fish group, i.e.,Pungtungia herzi, Squalidus gracilis majimae, Squalidus japonicus coreanus, Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyaeandPseudorasbora parva, all of 323 fish were infected with an average of 1,310 CsMc. Total 23 (95.8%) gobioninid fish, i.e.,Pseudogobio esocinus, Abbottina springeri, Hemibarbus longirostris, Microphysogobio koreensis, andMicrophysogobio jeoni, were infected with 127 CsMc in average. In the acheilognathinid fish (bitterlings) group, the prevalence was 77.0%, and the density was 50 CsMc per fish infected. In the rasborinid fish (chubs) group, i.e.,Zacco platypus, Zacco temminckii, Zacco koreanus, andOpsariichthys uncirostris amurensis, 147 (36.5%) out of 403 fish examined were infected with 15 CsMc in average. The susceptibility indices of CsMc were 412 in the overall positive fish group, 1,310 in the gobioninid group-1, 122 in the gobioninid group-2, 38.5 in the acheilognathinid group, and 5.5 in the rasborinid fish group. Conclusively, it was confirmed that CsMc are highly prevalent in fish from Wicheon, and their infection tendency varied according to the subfamily groups in Cyprinidae fish hosts.

Concepts: Disease, Infection, Fish, River, Prevalence, Cyprinidae, Freshwater fish, South Korea