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Journal: The Korean journal of internal medicine


Recently, to lower the production costs and risk of infection, new disposable biopsy forceps made using simple manufacturing techniques have been introduced. However, the effects of the manufacturing techniques are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate which types of biopsy forceps could obtain good-quality specimens according to the manufacturing techniques.

Concepts: According to Jim


Recent advances in genome editing with programmable nucleases have opened up new avenues for multiple applications, from basic research to clinical therapy. The ease of use of the technology-and particularly clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-will allow us to improve our understanding of genomic variation in disease processes via cellular and animal models. Here, we highlight the progress made in correcting gene mutations in monogenic hereditary disorders and discuss various CRISPR-associated applications, such as cancer research, synthetic biology, and gene therapy using induced pluripotent stem cells. The challenges, ethical issues, and future prospects of CRISPR-based systems for human research are also discussed.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Cancer, Stem cell, Stem cells, Biotechnology, Induced pluripotent stem cell


Cardiotoxicity is a well-known complication following treatment with anthracyclines. However, they are still widely used in chemotherapy for breast cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, and sarcoma, among others. Patient clinical characteristics, such as age, sex, comorbidities, anthracycline dose and infusion schedule, and the combined anti-cancer agents used, are diverse among cancer types. It is difficult to recommend guidelines for the prevention or management of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity applicable to all cancer types. Therefore, anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity remains a major limitation in the proper management of cancer patients treated with an anthracycline-combined regimen. Efforts have been extensive to determine the mechanism and treatment of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Because cardiotoxicity causes irreversible damage to the myocardium, prevention is a more effective approach than treatment of cardiotoxicity after symptomatic or asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction develops. This article will review the pathophysiological mechanisms of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and strategies for protecting the myocardium from anthracycline.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Chemotherapy, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Chemotherapy regimens, Doxorubicin, Anthracycline


Studies investigating diabetic nephropathy (DN) have mostly focused on interpreting the pathologic molecular mechanisms of DN, which may provide valuable tools for early diagnosis and prevention of disease onset and progression. Currently, there are few therapeutic drugs for DN, which mainly consist of antihypertensive and antiproteinuric measures that arise from strict renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inactivation. However, these traditional therapies are suboptimal and there is a clear, unmet need for treatments that offer effective schemes beyond glucose control. The complexity and heterogeneity of the DN entity, along with ambiguous renal endpoints that may deter accurate appraisal of new drug potency, contribute to a worsening of the situation. To address these issues, current research into original therapies to treat DN is focusing on the intrinsic renal pathways that intervene with intracellular signaling of anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and metabolic pathways. Mounting evidence in support of the favorable metabolic effects of these novel agents with respect to the renal aspects of DN supports the likelihood of systemic beneficial effects as well. Thus, when translated into clinical use, these novel agents would also address the comorbid factors associated with diabetes, such as obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease. This review will provide a discussion of the promising and effective therapeutic agents for the management of DN.

Concepts: Kidney, Medicine, Nutrition, Myocardial infarction, Diabetes mellitus, Glucose, Diabetic nephropathy, Blood sugar


This study was conducted to evaluate the recent prevalence and trend of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance with a focus on multidrug-resistance (MDR) and fluoroquinolone resistance in South Korea.


Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic fibroinflammatory condition of which IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is the biliary manifestation. In this review, we provide an overview of IgG4-RD, with a focus on the biliary manifestations. In particular, we describe the important differential diagnoses of IgG4-SC, namely, primary sclerosing cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma, outline diagnostic criteria for IgG4-SC, provide insight into possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease and discuss short and long-term management options of this recently described disease.


Maintaining the patency of vascular access (VA) in hemodialysis (HD) patients is important and can be life-saving. We investigated the effects of aspirin resistance and mean platelet volume (MPV) on VA failure in HD patients.


Morphological changes due to lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were evaluated using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and the HRCT scores obtained using the Bhalla scoring system were correlated with those obtained using clinical and laboratory indicators.


After a study comparing drug-eluting stents (DESs) to sequential treatment with drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) and bare metal stents (BMSs), we retrospectively analysed strut malapposition and neointimal hyperplasia in de novo coronary lesions using optical coherence tomography (OCT) or intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS).


The establishment of protocols to differentiate kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells provides potential applications of kidney organoids in regenerative medicine. Modeling of renal diseases, drug screening, nephrotoxicity testing of compounds, and regenerative therapy are attractive applications. Although much progress still remains to be made in the development of kidney organoids, recent advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated system 9 (Cas9) genome editing and three-dimensional bioprinting technologies have contributed to the application of kidney organoids in clinical fields. In this section, we review recent advances in the applications of kidney organoids to kidney disease modelling, drug screening, nephrotoxicity testing, and regenerative therapy.