SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The Korean journal of internal medicine

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Cardiotoxicity is a well-known complication following treatment with anthracyclines. However, they are still widely used in chemotherapy for breast cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, and sarcoma, among others. Patient clinical characteristics, such as age, sex, comorbidities, anthracycline dose and infusion schedule, and the combined anti-cancer agents used, are diverse among cancer types. It is difficult to recommend guidelines for the prevention or management of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity applicable to all cancer types. Therefore, anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity remains a major limitation in the proper management of cancer patients treated with an anthracycline-combined regimen. Efforts have been extensive to determine the mechanism and treatment of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Because cardiotoxicity causes irreversible damage to the myocardium, prevention is a more effective approach than treatment of cardiotoxicity after symptomatic or asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction develops. This article will review the pathophysiological mechanisms of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and strategies for protecting the myocardium from anthracycline.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Chemotherapy, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Chemotherapy regimens, Doxorubicin, Anthracycline

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Studies investigating diabetic nephropathy (DN) have mostly focused on interpreting the pathologic molecular mechanisms of DN, which may provide valuable tools for early diagnosis and prevention of disease onset and progression. Currently, there are few therapeutic drugs for DN, which mainly consist of antihypertensive and antiproteinuric measures that arise from strict renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inactivation. However, these traditional therapies are suboptimal and there is a clear, unmet need for treatments that offer effective schemes beyond glucose control. The complexity and heterogeneity of the DN entity, along with ambiguous renal endpoints that may deter accurate appraisal of new drug potency, contribute to a worsening of the situation. To address these issues, current research into original therapies to treat DN is focusing on the intrinsic renal pathways that intervene with intracellular signaling of anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and metabolic pathways. Mounting evidence in support of the favorable metabolic effects of these novel agents with respect to the renal aspects of DN supports the likelihood of systemic beneficial effects as well. Thus, when translated into clinical use, these novel agents would also address the comorbid factors associated with diabetes, such as obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease. This review will provide a discussion of the promising and effective therapeutic agents for the management of DN.

Concepts: Kidney, Medicine, Nutrition, Myocardial infarction, Diabetes mellitus, Glucose, Diabetic nephropathy, Blood sugar

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Previous studies have reported a high rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) and a low rate of serious adverse events with the use of daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) combination therapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DCV and ASV combination therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b infection in real world.

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Limited data are available regarding the efficacy of rivaroxaban for the treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban for the treatment of VTE in active cancer patients.

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The populations of Asian countries are expected to age rapidly in the near future, with a dramatic increase in the number of heart failure (HF) patients also anticipated. The need for palliative and end-of-life care for elderly patients with advanced HF is currently recognized in aging societies. However, palliative care and active treatment for HF are not mutually exclusive, and palliative care should be provided to reduce suffering occurring at any stage of symptomatic HF after the point of diagnosis. HF patients are at high risk of sudden cardiac death from the early stages of the disease onwards. The decision of whether to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the event of an emergency is challenging, especially in elderly HF patients, because of the difficulty in accurately predicting the prognosis of the condition. Furthermore, advanced HF patients are often fitted with a device, and device deactivation at the end of life is a complicated process. Treatment strategies should thus be discussed by multi-disciplinary teams, including palliative experts, and should consider patient directives to address the problems discussed above. Open communication with the HF patient regarding the expected prognosis, course, and treatment options will serve to support the patient and aid in future planning.

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To evaluate the association between the urinary sodium concentration and iodine status in different age groups in Korea.

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We aimed to study the clinical characteristics, treatment modality, and the prognosis of synchronous multiple primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SMPESCC).

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Despite the high burden and frequency of urticaria, its epidemiology is not well known. We investigated the epidemiology of various type of urticaria in Korea and changes in its annual prevalence over 5 years.

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To define standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in Korea.

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Markers of inflammation have been associated with outcomes in various cancers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether systemic inf lammatory markers and their f luctuations can predict survival and chemotherapy response in patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC).