SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The Korean journal of internal medicine

142

The clinical manifestations of Behcet disease (BD) have been reported to differ according to country, region, and race. Gender, onset age, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B51 have also been known as the factors that influence the clinical features of BD. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical phenotypes of Korean patients who visited the rheumatology clinic with BD with respect to gender, onset age, and HLA-B51.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Death, Human leukocyte antigen, Hangul, Behçet's disease, Hulusi Behçet, HLA-B51

23

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) lead to elevation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3)-inf lammasome. In this study, we elucidated whether NLRP3 -inf lammasome is activated by DEPs and whether antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) could inhibit such activation.

Concepts: Protein, Oxygen, Lung, Mitochondrion, Gasoline, Oxidative phosphorylation, Reactive oxygen species, Glutathione

2

Recent advances in genome editing with programmable nucleases have opened up new avenues for multiple applications, from basic research to clinical therapy. The ease of use of the technology-and particularly clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-will allow us to improve our understanding of genomic variation in disease processes via cellular and animal models. Here, we highlight the progress made in correcting gene mutations in monogenic hereditary disorders and discuss various CRISPR-associated applications, such as cancer research, synthetic biology, and gene therapy using induced pluripotent stem cells. The challenges, ethical issues, and future prospects of CRISPR-based systems for human research are also discussed.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Cancer, Stem cell, Stem cells, Biotechnology, Induced pluripotent stem cell

2

Cardiotoxicity is a well-known complication following treatment with anthracyclines. However, they are still widely used in chemotherapy for breast cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, and sarcoma, among others. Patient clinical characteristics, such as age, sex, comorbidities, anthracycline dose and infusion schedule, and the combined anti-cancer agents used, are diverse among cancer types. It is difficult to recommend guidelines for the prevention or management of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity applicable to all cancer types. Therefore, anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity remains a major limitation in the proper management of cancer patients treated with an anthracycline-combined regimen. Efforts have been extensive to determine the mechanism and treatment of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Because cardiotoxicity causes irreversible damage to the myocardium, prevention is a more effective approach than treatment of cardiotoxicity after symptomatic or asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction develops. This article will review the pathophysiological mechanisms of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and strategies for protecting the myocardium from anthracycline.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Chemotherapy, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Chemotherapy regimens, Doxorubicin, Anthracycline

0

Adoptive therapy with regulatory T (Treg) cells to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) would benefit from a strategy to improve homing to the sites of inflammation following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although donor-derived Treg cells have mainly been used in these models, third-party-derived Treg cells are a promising alternative for cell-based immunotherapy, as they can be screened for pathogens and cell activity, and banked for GVHD prevention. In this study, we explored major histocompatibility complex (MHC) disparities between Treg cells and conventional T cells in HSCT to evaluate the impact of these different cell populations on the prevention of acute GVHD, as well as survival after allogeneic transplantation.

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Predialysis hyponatremia has been recently reported to be associated with mortality in incident hemodialysis patients. However, whether hyponatremia is associated with unfavorable outcomes in elderly patients remains unknown. We hypothesized that nephrology referral inf luences hyponatremia, and aimed to define how nephrology referral affects the association between hyponatremia and mortality in the elderly.

0

Both diaphragmatic excursion and change in muscle thickening are measured using ultrasonography (US) to assess diaphragm function and mechanical ventilation weaning outcomes. However, which parameter can better predict successful extubation remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical utility of these two diaphragmatic parameters to predict extubation success.

0

This study investigated the clinical and pathological features of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related ophthalmic disease. To clarify the features, we compared IgG4-related ophthalmic disease and orbital inflammatory pseudotumor.

0

Although epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is found in high contents in the dried leaves of green tea, has been reported to have an anti-platelet effect, synergistic effects of EGCG in addition to current anti-platelet medications remains to be elucidated.

0

Fimasartan is an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) which has comparable efficacy and tolerability with other ARBs. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy and the tolerability of the low dose fimasartan compared with valsartan in patients with mild to moderate hypertension.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Renin-angiotensin system, Angiotensin II receptor antagonist, Orthostatic hypotension, Prehypertension, Lower house