SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The Korean journal of internal medicine

142

The clinical manifestations of Behcet disease (BD) have been reported to differ according to country, region, and race. Gender, onset age, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B51 have also been known as the factors that influence the clinical features of BD. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical phenotypes of Korean patients who visited the rheumatology clinic with BD with respect to gender, onset age, and HLA-B51.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Death, Human leukocyte antigen, Hangul, Behçet's disease, Hulusi Behçet, HLA-B51

23

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) lead to elevation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3)-inf lammasome. In this study, we elucidated whether NLRP3 -inf lammasome is activated by DEPs and whether antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) could inhibit such activation.

Concepts: Protein, Oxygen, Lung, Mitochondrion, Gasoline, Oxidative phosphorylation, Reactive oxygen species, Glutathione

2

Recent advances in genome editing with programmable nucleases have opened up new avenues for multiple applications, from basic research to clinical therapy. The ease of use of the technology-and particularly clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-will allow us to improve our understanding of genomic variation in disease processes via cellular and animal models. Here, we highlight the progress made in correcting gene mutations in monogenic hereditary disorders and discuss various CRISPR-associated applications, such as cancer research, synthetic biology, and gene therapy using induced pluripotent stem cells. The challenges, ethical issues, and future prospects of CRISPR-based systems for human research are also discussed.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Cancer, Stem cell, Stem cells, Biotechnology, Induced pluripotent stem cell

2

Cardiotoxicity is a well-known complication following treatment with anthracyclines. However, they are still widely used in chemotherapy for breast cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, and sarcoma, among others. Patient clinical characteristics, such as age, sex, comorbidities, anthracycline dose and infusion schedule, and the combined anti-cancer agents used, are diverse among cancer types. It is difficult to recommend guidelines for the prevention or management of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity applicable to all cancer types. Therefore, anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity remains a major limitation in the proper management of cancer patients treated with an anthracycline-combined regimen. Efforts have been extensive to determine the mechanism and treatment of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Because cardiotoxicity causes irreversible damage to the myocardium, prevention is a more effective approach than treatment of cardiotoxicity after symptomatic or asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction develops. This article will review the pathophysiological mechanisms of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and strategies for protecting the myocardium from anthracycline.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Chemotherapy, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Chemotherapy regimens, Doxorubicin, Anthracycline

0

Combined treatment of pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) has long been accepted as the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Many predictive factors for treatment response have been identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined PEG-IFN plus RBV and to examine the value of serum uric acid as a predictive factor in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

Concepts: Virus, Hepatitis, Interferon, Hepatitis C, Ribavirin, Hepatitis B, Uric acid, Hepatitis C virus

0

In some Western countries, up to 50% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have subclinical gut inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and severity of gut inflammation and to determine clinical factors associated with colonic inflammation in Korean AS patients who performed ileocolonoscopy without evidence of established inf lammatory bowel diseases before.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Medical terms, Ankylosing spondylitis, Western world, Western culture, Cold War, Soviet Union

0

Coronary vasospasms are one of the important causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Provocation of coronary vasospasms can be useful, though some results may lead to false positives, with patients potentially experiencing recurrent SCD despite appropriate medical treatments. We hypothesized that it is not coronary vasospasms but inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes (IPAS) that underlie the development of SCD.

Concepts: Medicine, Cardiology, Heart, Avicenna, Cardiac arrest, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Sudden cardiac death, Vasospasm

0

To evaluate the geographic and demographic variabilities of the quantitative parameters of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium in patients with normal coronary artery on computed tomography angiography (CTA).

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Heart, Atheroma, Medical imaging, Artery, Coronary circulation, Cardiovascular system, Cardiac anatomy

0

Effective educational tools are important for increasing adherence to asthma guidelines and clinical improvement of asthma patients. We developed a computer-based interactive education program for asthma guideline named the Virtual Learning Center for Asthma Management (VLCAM). We evaluated the usefulness of program in terms of its effects on user awareness of asthma guideline and level of satisfaction.

Concepts: Psychology, Clinical trial, Effect, Effectiveness, Education, Cognitive science, Educational psychology, History of education

0

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) occurs in 15% of patients with collagen vascular disease (CVD), referred to as connective tissue disease (CTD). Despite advances in management strategies, ILD continues to be a significant cause of mortality in patients with CVD-associated ILD (CTD-ILD). There is a lack of randomized, clinical trials assessing pharmacological agents for CTD-ILD, except in cases of ILD-associated systemic sclerosis (SSc). This may be due to the lack of CTD cases available, the difficulty of histological confirmation of ILD, and the various types of CTD and ILD. As a result, evidence-based pharmacological treatment of CTD-ILD is not yet well established. CTD-ILD presents with varying degrees of histology, from inflammation to fibrosis, and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from minimal symptoms to respiratory failure. This renders it difficult for clinicians to make decisions regarding treatment options, observational strategies, optimal timing for interventions, and the appropriateness of pharmacological agents for treatment. There is no specific treatment for reversing fibrosis-like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a clinical setting. This review describes pharmacological interventions for SSc-ILD described in randomized control trials, and presents an overview of recent advances of CTD-ILD-dependent treatments based on the types of CTD.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Pulmonology, Fibrosis, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Pulmonary fibrosis, Interstitial lung disease, Scleroderma