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Journal: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences


Foot problems are prevalent in older women and are thought to be associated with footwear. This study examined women’s shoe wearing patterns over time and evaluated associations between footwear characteristics and foot pain and hallux valgus.

Concepts: Foot, Hallux, Bunion, Concepts in metaphysics, Shoe, Footwear


Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Glucose, Physical exercise, Mass, Adipose tissue, Kilogram, Weight


Current evidence that links “healthier” dietary patterns to better measured physical performance is mainly from older populations; little is known about the role of earlier diet. We examined adult diet quality in relation to physical performance at age 60-64 years.

Concepts: Cohort study, Human, Nutrition, Death, Biology, Test method, Diet, Diabetic diet


Several longitudinal studies found an inverse relationship between levels of physical activity and cognitive decline, dementia, and/or Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but results have been inconsistent. We followed an older, community-based cohort for over a decade to examine the association of physical activity with the risk of incident dementia and subclinical brain MRI markers of dementia.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Epidemiology, Cognition, Neurology, Dementia, Framingham Heart Study


Nonhuman studies suggest a protective effect of caffeine on cognition. Although human literature remains less consistent, reviews suggest a possible favorable relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive impairment or dementia. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake and incidence of cognitive impairment or probable dementia in women aged 65 and older from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study.

Concepts: Psychology, Decision making, Cognitive psychology, Cognition, Memory, Thought, Cognitive neuroscience, Caffeine


The association between years of education and cognitive function in older adults has been studied extensively, but the role of quality of education is unknown. We examined indicators of childhood educational quality as predictors of cognitive performance and decline in later life.

Concepts: Psychology, Biology, Cognition, Cognitive science, Educational psychology, Social sciences, Association of Ideas, Coming of age


Gompertz-related distributions have dominated mortality studies for 187 years. However, nonrelated distributions also fit well to mortality data. These compete with the Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham data when applied to data with varying extents of truncation, with no consensus as to preference. In contrast, Gaussian-related distributions are rarely applied, despite the fact that Lexis in 1879 suggested that the normal distribution itself fits well to the right of the mode. Study aims were therefore to compare skew-t fits to Human Mortality Database data, with Gompertz-nested distributions, by implementing maximum likelihood estimation functions (mle2, R package bbmle; coding given). Results showed skew-t fits obtained lower Bayesian information criterion values than Gompertz-nested distributions, applied to low-mortality country data, including 1711 and 1810 cohorts. As Gaussian-related distributions have now been found to have almost universal application to error theory, one conclusion could be that a Gaussian-related distribution might replace Gompertz-related distributions as the basis for mortality studies.

Concepts: Estimation theory, Maximum likelihood, Ronald Fisher, Normal distribution, Probability density function, Likelihood function, Uniform distribution


BACKGROUND: A reduction in maximal stroke volume (SV(max)) and total blood volume (TBV) has been hypothesized to contribute to the decline in maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) with healthy aging. However, these variables have rarely been collected simultaneously in a board age range to support or refute this hypothesis. It is also unclear to what extent scaling size-related cardiovascular determinants of VO(2)max affects the interpretation of age-related differences. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of VO(2)max, maximal cardiac output (Q©max), TBV, and body composition including fat-free mass (FFM) in 95 (51% M) healthy adults ranging from 19-86 years. RESULTS: Absolute and indexed VO(2)max, Q©max, and maximal heart rate decreased in both sexes with age (p ≤ .031). SV(max) declined with age when scaled to total body mass or body surface area (p ≤ .047) but not when expressed in absolute levels (p = .120) or relative to FFM (p = .464). Absolute and indexed TBVs (mL/kg; mL/m(2)) were not significantly affected by age but increased with age in both sexes when scaled to FFM (p ≤ .013). A lower arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO(2)diff) contributed to the reduction in VO(2)max with age in treadmill exercisers (p = .004) but not in the entire cohort (p = .128). CONCLUSION: These results suggest (a) a reduction in absolute SV(max), and TBV do not contribute substantially to the age-related reduction in VO(2)max, which instead results from a smaller Q©max due to a lower maximal heart rate, and (b) body composition scaling methods should be used to accurately describe the effect of aging on physical function and cardiovascular variables.

Concepts: Blood, Cardiology, Heart, Affect, Heart rate, Exercise physiology, VO2 max, Blood volume


Evidence suggests systemic inflammation may have a mechanistic role in age-related frailty, yet prospective data is limited. We examined whether systemic inflammation during midlife was associated with late-life frailty within the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

Concepts: Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, Data


Aging frailty, characterized by decreased physical and immunological functioning, is associated with stem cell depletion. Human allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (allo-hMSCs) exert immunomodulatory effects and promote tissue repair.

Concepts: Cell, Clinical trial, Cell division, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Bone marrow, Stem cells, Immunology