SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The journal of trauma and acute care surgery

29

Early administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been associated with a reduction in mortality and blood product requirements in severely injured adults. It has also shown significantly reduced blood loss and transfusion requirements in major elective pediatric surgery, but no published data have examined the use of TXA in pediatric trauma.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Hospital, Hydrogen, Surgery, Physician, Physical trauma, Tranexamic acid, Blood transfusion

29

Small 14F pigtail catheters (PCs) have been shown to drain air quite well in patients with traumatic pneumothorax (PTX). But their effectiveness in draining blood in patients with traumatic hemothorax (HTX) or hemopneumothorax (HPTX) is unknown. We hypothesized that 14F PCs can drain blood as well as large-bore 32F to 40F chest tubes. We herein report our early case series experience with PCs in the management of traumatic HTX and HPTX.

Concepts: Hospital, Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Physical trauma, Chest tube, Hemothorax, Chest trauma, Hemopneumothorax

28

Intracavitary noncompressible hemorrhage remains a significant cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Two dynamically mixed and percutaneously injected liquids were engineered to create an in situ self-expanding polymer foam to facilitate hemostasis in massive bleeding. We hypothesized that intraperitoneal injection of the polymer could achieve conformal contact with sites of injury and improve survival in swine with lethal hepatoportal injury.

Concepts: Blood, Hemostasis, Bleeding, Silicone, Exsanguination

28

For nearly a decade, our center performed thromboelastograms (TEGs) to analyze coagulation profiles, allowing rapid data-driven blood component therapy. After consensus recommendations for massive transfusion protocols (MTPs), we implemented an MTP in October 2009 with 1:1:1 ratio of blood (red blood cells [RBC]), plasma (fresh-frozen plasma [FFP]), and platelets. We hypothesized that TEG-directed resuscitation is equivalent to MTP resuscitation.

Concepts: Blood, Red blood cell, Bone marrow, Coagulation, Platelet, Hematology, Blood transfusion, Blood cell

28

The role of mitochondrial dysfunction has not been thoroughly clarified in the pathogenesis of critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to investigate mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and apoptosis in circulating platelets in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Mitochondrion, Organelle, Cell biology, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, Thrombocytopenia, Sepsis

28

Immediate use of thawed fresh frozen plasma (FFP) when resuscitating hemorrhagic shock patients has become more common. According to the AABB (formerly known as American Association of Blood Banks), FFP is the preferred product that can be used up to 5 days after thawing. However, limited data exist on the clinical use and hemostatic profiles of Food and Drug Administration-approved liquid plasma (LQP), which can be stored at 1°C to 6°C for up to 26 days. We characterized changes in LQP hemostatic potential during 26 days of cold storage.

Concepts: Blood, Coagulation, Liquid, Fresh frozen plasma, Cryoprecipitate, Blood plasma, Blood bank, 2007 singles

28

Best practices promulgated by the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma suggest that delay in surgery for adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) should not exceed 5 days. This study aimed to probe the relationship between operative delay and adverse outcomes, defined as occurrence of a complication, requirement for bowel resection, prolonged postoperative stay, or death in ASBO using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

Concepts: Crohn's disease, Constipation, Hernia, Bowel obstruction, General surgery, Best practice, Nationwide Building Society

28

The Joint Theater Trauma Registry database, begun early in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, created a comprehensive repository of information that facilitated research efforts and produced rapid changes in clinical care. New clinical practice guidelines were adopted throughout the last decade. The damage-control resuscitation clinical practice guideline sought to provide high-quality blood products in support of tissue perfusion and hemostasis. The goal was to reduce death from hemorrhagic shock in patients with severe traumatic bleeding. This 10-year review of the Joint Theater Trauma Registry database reports the military’s experience with resuscitation and coagulopathy, evaluates the effect of increased plasma and platelet (PLT)-to-red blood cell ratios, and analyzes other recent changes in practice.

Concepts: Blood, Hemostasis, Bleeding, Operation Enduring Freedom

28

We have previously demonstrated that valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, can improve survival after hemorrhagic shock (HS), protect neurons from hypoxia-induced apoptosis, and attenuate the inflammatory response. We have also shown that administration of 6% hetastarch (Hextend [Hex]) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) decreases brain swelling, without affecting size of the lesion. This study was performed to determine whether addition of VPA to Hex would decrease the lesion size in a clinically relevant large animal model of TBI + HS.

Concepts: Histone deacetylase, Traumatic brain injury

28

BACKGROUND: In 2008, we showed that incomplete or delayed extremity fasciotomies were associated with mortality and muscle necrosis in war casualties with limb injury. Subsequently, we developed an education program focused on surgeon knowledge gaps regarding the diagnosis of compartment syndrome and prophylactic fasciotomy. The program included educational alerts, classroom training, video instruction, and a research publication. We compared casualty data before and after the program implementation to determine whether the education altered outcomes. METHODS: Similar to the previous study, a case series was made from combat casualty medical records. Casualties were US military servicemen with fasciotomies performed in Iraq, Afghanistan, or Germany between two periods (periods 1 and 2). RESULTS: In both periods, casualty demographics were similar. Most fasciotomies were performed to the lower leg and forearm. Period 1 had 336 casualties with 643 fasciotomies, whereas Period 2 had 268 casualties with 1,221 fasciotomies (1.9 vs. 4.6 fasciotomies per casualty, respectively; p < 0.0001). The mortality rate decreased in Period 2 (3%, 8 of 268 casualties) from Period 1 (8%, 26 of 336 casualties; p = 0.0125). Muscle excision and major amputation rates were similar in both periods (p > 0.05). Rates of casualties with revision fasciotomy decreased to 8% in Period 2, (22 of 268 casualties) versus 15% in Period 1 (51 of 336 casualties; p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Combat casualty care following implementation of a fasciotomy education program was associated with improved survival, higher fasciotomy rates, and fewer revisions. Because delayed fasciotomy rates were unchanged, further effort to educate providers may be indicated. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.

Concepts: Education, Limb, Human leg, Compartment syndrome, War casualties