SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

20

Rehabilitation professionals often use therapeutic modalities as a component of the surgical and nonsurgical management of orthopaedic injuries. Myriad therapeutic modalities, including cryotherapy, thermotherapy, ultrasonography, electrical stimulation, iontophoresis, and laser therapy, are available. Knowledge of the scientific basis of each modality and the principles of implementation for specific injuries enables musculoskeletal treatment providers to prescribe these modalities effectively. The selection of specific therapeutic modalities is based on their efficacy during a particular phase of rehabilitation. Therapeutic modalities are an adjunct to standard exercise and manual therapy techniques and should not be used in isolation.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Therapy, Physical therapy, Logic, Modality, Manual therapy

20

Opioid-centric pain management strategies have created an epidemic of prescription opioid abuse. This study assesses whether opioid intake is associated with disability, satisfaction with treatment, and pain at the time of suture removal and at 5 to 8 months after suture removal following open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures.

Concepts: English-language films, Anesthesia, Opioid, Pain, Suffering, Pain management, Ankle

20

Obesity is an epidemic, with approximately 35% of the US population affected. This rate is unlikely to decline and may increase the demand for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Data regarding the risks, benefits, and potential complications of TKA in this patient population are conflicting. Preoperative considerations are optimization of nutritional status, safe weight loss strategies, and bariatric surgery. Intraoperative concerns unique to this population include inadequate exposure, implant alignment, and durable implant fixation; postoperative issues include tibial loosening, wound complications, cardiovascular events, and respiratory complications. A thorough understanding of the medical and surgical complications associated with TKA in the obese patient will facilitate research efforts and improve outcomes.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Surgery, Physical exercise, Osteoarthritis, Weight loss, Bariatric surgery

19

Sports-related concussion (SRC) is a substantial concern in collegiate athletics. Some studies of SRC that make comparisons by sex are limited by sample size, follow-up duration, or referral bias. Sex-specific predictors of occurrence and recovery are uncertain.

Concepts: Sample, Sample size, Sampling

18

The patient’s sex plays an important role in mediating the risk for, and experience of, disease. Injuries of the musculoskeletal system are no exception to this phenomenon. Increasing evidence shows that the incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes for male and female patients with common sports injuries may vary widely. Stress fracture, which is associated with the female athlete triad, is a sports injury with known sex-based differences. Other common sports-related injuries may also have distinct sex-based differences. Understanding these differences is important to optimize each patient’s musculoskeletal care.

18

Although diabetes mellitus (DM) has been established as a risk factor for infection after lower extremity arthroplasty, no association has been reported with shoulder arthroplasty.

Concepts: Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus, The Canon of Medicine, Diabetes, Insulin resistance, Glycemic index, Diabetic diet, Thomas Willis

8

In recent years, there has been a movement toward barefoot and minimalist running. Advocates assert that a lack of cushion and support promotes a forefoot or midfoot strike rather than a rearfoot strike, decreasing the impact transient and stress on the hip and knee. Although the change in gait is theorized to decrease injury risk, this concept has not yet been fully elucidated. However, research has shown diminished symptoms of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and anterior knee pain after a transition to minimalist running. Skeptics are concerned that, because of the effects of the natural environment and the lack of a standardized transition program, barefoot running could lead to additional, unforeseen injuries. Studies have shown that, with the transition to minimalist running, there is increased stress on the foot and ankle and risk of repetitive stress injuries. Nonetheless, despite the large gap of evidence-based knowledge on minimalist running, the potential benefits warrant further research and consideration.

Concepts: Ecology, Foot, Natural environment, Environmentalism, Compartment syndrome, Repetitive strain injury, Barefoot running, The University Transition Program

7

Decades of research support the fact that much age-related deterioration is the result of the effects of sedentary lifestyles and the development of medical conditions rather than of aging itself. Elite older athletes, who demonstrate enhanced performance compared with historic cohorts and even some younger peers, are models of this paradigm. Many non-elite middle-aged adults and older adults continue to remain increasingly active throughout middle age and beyond. A continually growing body of basic science and clinical evidence demonstrates how active persons modulate physical decline through training. An updated understanding of how active adults defy age helps orthopaedic surgeons not only manage their patients' performance but also improve their lives. A large segment of sedentary older adults will benefit from counseling that encourages the pursuit of more active and healthier lifestyles.

Concepts: Death, Senescence, Middle age, Gerontology, Old age, Ageing, Aging, Retirement

5

Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a significant health problem with lifetime risk of development estimated to be 45%. Effective nonsurgical treatments are needed for the management of symptoms.

5

The diagnosis and treatment of patients who have both hip and lumbar spine pathologies may be a challenge because overlapping symptoms may delay a correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Common complaints of patients who have both hip and lumbar spine pathologies include low back pain with associated buttock, groin, thigh, and, possibly, knee pain. A thorough patient history should be obtained and a complete physical examination should be performed in these patients to identify the primary source of pain. Plain and advanced imaging studies and diagnostic injections can be used to further delineate the primary pathology and guide the appropriate sequence of treatment. Both the surgeon and the patient should understand that, although one pathology is managed, the management of the other pathology may be necessary because of persistent pain. The recognition of both entities may help reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosis, and the management of both entities in the appropriate sequence may help reduce the likelihood of persistent symptoms.

Concepts: Spinal disc herniation, Patient, Pathology, Hospital, Physician, Medical diagnosis, Human anatomy, Physical examination