Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons


Skiing and snowboarding have increased in popularity since the 1960s. Both sports are responsible for a substantial number of musculoskeletal injuries treated annually by orthopaedic surgeons. Specific injury patterns and mechanisms associated with skiing and snowboarding have been identified. No anatomic location is exempt from injury, including the head, spine, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities. In these sports, characteristic injury mechanisms often are related to the position of the limbs during injury, the athlete’s expertise level, and equipment design. Controversy exists about the effectiveness of knee bracing and wrist guards in reducing the incidence of these injuries. Understanding these injury patterns, proper training, and the use of injury prevention measures, such as protective equipment, may reduce the overall incidence of these potentially debilitating injuries.

Concepts: Surgery, Injury, Orthopedic surgery, Protection, Human anatomy, Accident


NSAIDs inhibit osteogenesis and may result in delayed union or nonunion. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine whether their use leads to delayed union or nonunion.


The use of MRI is increasing when evaluating patients with knee pain because it is highly sensitive for detecting intra-articular pathology. However, such changes can be associated with degenerative joint disease, which may be demonstrated with weight-bearing radiographs. The purpose of this study was to determine how often MRI was obtained before orthopaedic referral in patients aged ≥40 years with knee pain, how often weight-bearing radiographs were obtained before MRI, and whether such imaging influenced treatment recommendations.

Concepts: Bone, Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Knee, Joint, Synovial joint, Ligament, Septic arthritis


Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip articulations were thought to represent a biologic and biomechanically favorable alternative to conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty implants. However, concerns emerged when registry data reported significantly higher failure rates associated with MoM implants compared with other contemporary hip implants. These high implant failure rates have been attributed to the release of metal particles into the periprosthetic space, creating macroscopic necrosis; corrosive osteolysis; large, sterile hip effusions; and periprosthetic solid and cystic masses (ie, pseudotumors)-a spectrum of findings termed adverse reaction to metal debris. A thorough clinical history and physical examination, along with laboratory data and imaging surveillance of these patients, is critical for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The decision to perform revision hip arthroplasty of a metal-on-metal implant is multifactorial and should be based on documented, objective clinical indications. A systematic and objective approach to this evaluation and treatment is essential to optimize the care of patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty with MoM implants.

Concepts: Implants, Hip replacement, Orthopedic surgery, Physical examination


Historically, management of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures has consisted of nonsurgical treatment. However, recent literature has supported surgical repair of displaced and shortened clavicle fractures. Multiple options exist for surgical fixation, including plate and intramedullary (IM) fixation. IM fixation has the potential advantages of a smaller incision and decreased dissection and soft-tissue exposure. For the last two decades, the use of Rockwood and Hagie pins represented the most popular form of IM fixation, but concerns exist regarding stability and complications. The use of alternative IM implants, such as Kirschner wires, titanium elastic nails, and cannulated screws, also has been described in limited case series. However, concerns persist regarding the complications associated with the use of these implants, including implant failure, migration, skin complications, and construct stability. Second-generation IM implants have been developed to reduce the limitations of earlier IM devices. Although anatomic and clinical studies have supported IM fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures, further research is necessary to determine the optimal fixation method.

Concepts: Medicine, Clinical trial, Implants, Anatomy, Human anatomy, Dental implant, Clavicle fracture, Kirschner wire


Septic arthritis of the hip (SAH) is a common condition encountered by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons and is treated with arthrotomy and irrigation. Depending on the response to initial treatment, some patients require surgical treatment beyond the index procedure. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for repeat surgical intervention after initial arthrotomy for presumed SAH.


Acute rupture of the Achilles tendon is common and seen most frequently in people who participate in recreational athletics into their thirties and forties. Although goals of treatment have not changed in the past 15 years, recent studies of nonsurgical management, specifically functional bracing with early range of motion, demonstrate rerupture rates similar to those of tendon repair and result in fewer wound and soft-tissue complications. Satisfactory outcomes may be obtained with nonsurgical or surgical treatment. Newer surgical techniques, including limited open and percutaneous repair, show rerupture rates similar to those of open repair but lower overall complication rates. Early research demonstrates no improvement in functional outcomes or tendon properties with the use of platelet-rich plasma, but promising results with the use of bone marrow-derived stem cells have been seen in animal models. Further investigation is necessary to warrant routine use of biologic adjuncts in the management of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

Concepts: Demonstration, Tendon, Achilles tendon, Tendinosis, Rupture of membranes, Achilles tendon rupture


Cervical spinal deformity (CSD) in adult patients is a relatively uncommon yet debilitating condition with diverse etiologies and clinical manifestations. Similar to thoracolumbar deformity, CSD can be broadly divided into scoliosis and kyphosis. Severe forms of CSD can lead to pain; neurologic deterioration, including myelopathy; and cervical spine-specific symptoms such as difficulty with horizontal gaze, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Recently, an increased interest is shown in systematically studying CSD with introduction of classification schemes and treatment algorithms. Both major and minor complications after surgical intervention have been analyzed and juxtaposed to patient-reported outcomes. An ongoing effort exists to better understand the relationship between cervical and thoracolumbar spinal alignment, most importantly in the sagittal plane.


The Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a scoring tool that allows comparisons between patients with rare conditions and more common ailments, or the general US population. PROMIS outcomes were compared between the limb salvage and amputee patients for nonmetastatic sarcomas to the US population.


Lumbar disk herniation, degenerative disk disease, and spondylolysis are the most prevalent lumbar conditions that result in missed playing time. Lumbar disk herniation has a good prognosis. After recovery from injury, professional athletes return to play 82% of the time. Surgical management of lumbar disk herniation has been shown to be a viable option in athletes in whom nonsurgical measures have failed. Degenerative disk disease is predominately genetic but may be accelerated in athletes secondary to increased physiologic loading. Nonsurgical management is the standard of care for lumbar degenerative disk disease in the elite athlete. Spondylolysis is more common in adolescent athletes with back pain than in adult athletes. Nonsurgical management of spondylolysis is typically successful. However, if surgery is required, fusion or direct pars repair can allow the patient to return to sports.

Concepts: Disease, Spinal disc herniation, Surgery, Degenerative disc disease, Play, Professional sports, Elite