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Journal: The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness


Performance trends during the last decades in elite individual medley swimmers are known, but not for age groups swimmers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine participation and performance trends in age groups swimmers competing in FINA World Masters Championships (1986-2014) in individual 200m and 400m medley.

Concepts: Steve Davis, Stephen Hendry, Jimmy White, World Masters Games, John Higgins, Mike Hallett


Aim: The purpose of this study was to clarify training-related risk factors for overuse injuries. Methods: This was twelve-month retrospective study which was done by self-reported postal questionnaire. The study group consisted of 446 men and women top-level Finnish athletes representing three different endurance sports (cross-country skiing, swimming, long-distance running) between the ages of 15-35. Self-reported anthropometric and training-related variables (such as starting age of training, years of active training, hours trained yearly, competition hours and weekly resting days) and occurrence of overuse injuries. Results: Athletes with less than 2 rest days per week during the training season had 5.2-fold risk (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.89-14.06, P=0.001) for an overuse injury, and athletes who trained more than 700 hours during a year had 2.1-fold risk (95% CI 1.21-3.61, P=0.008) for an overuse injury compared to the others. Athletes who reported a tendon injury were on average two years older than athletes without such an injury (P<0.001). Conclusion: We found that low number of recovery days and a high amount of training are training-related risk factors for overuse injuries in top-level endurance athletes. The higher number of tendon overuse injuries in older than younger athletes may indicate that age-related degeneration plays an important role in the etiology of tendon injuries. These findings should be taken into account when planning exercise programs for endurance athletes.

Concepts: Training, Injuries, Injury, Confidence interval, The Higher, Tendon


Aim: This study aims to: 1) describe the current anthropometric profiles of Kenyan marathon runners and 2) establish a set of reference values useful for future investigations on athlete selection, talent identification, and training programme development. Methods: The participants were 14 male top-class Kenyan marathon runners (mean [s] age 27.71 [3.75] yrs, height 171.21 [6.12] cm, body mass 57.71 [4.02] kg, marathon personal best 02h 07min 16s (01min 55s); training volume: 180-220 km·wk-1; high:low intensity training ratio: 1:2). The anthropometric profiles included the measurement of skinfolds, and segment lengths, breadths, and girths. To estimate body density (BD) multiple regression equations were calculated using the sum of 7-skinfolds method and then converted to percentage of body fat (%BF). The somatotype, somatotype dispersion mean (SDM), somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM), and height to weight ratio (HWR) as well as the skinfolds extremity to trunk ratio (E:T) were also calculated. Results: The mean (s) of BD, %BF, SDM, SAM, HWR and E:T were 1.13 (0.02), 8.87 (0.07) %, 4.58 (3.62), 0.51 (0.09), 44.32 (1.06), and 0.36 (0.11), respectively. The mean (s) endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy were 1.53 (0.32), 1.61 (1.81), and 3.86 (0.78), respectively. Conclusion: Top-class Kenyan marathon runners seem to have ectomorphy as dominant, with endomorphy and mesomorphy more than one-half unit lower. Despite population comparisons would be required to identify any connection between specific anthropometric dimensions, these reference data should be useful to practitioners and researchers, providing useful information for talent identification and development and for the assessment of training progression in marathon.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Mass, Summation, Length


An enhanced ability to resist fatigue has been proposed as one of African runners' performance superiority sources, although their fatigue resistance during sustained non-runningspecific activities remain unclear. This study aimed to compare fatigue resistance during sustained isometric exercise between performance-matched African and European runners.

Concepts: Exercise, Strength training


Barefoot running can improve running economy (RE) compared to shod running at low exercise intensities, but data is lacking for the higher intensities typical during many distance running competitions. The influence of barefoot running on the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) and peak incremental treadmill test velocity (vmax) is unknown. The present study tested the hypotheses that barefoot running would improve RE, vVO2max and vmax relative to shod running.

Concepts: Exercise physiology, Running, Walking, Stretching, Barefoot running


An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/OC cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad.

Concepts: Energy, Muscle contraction, Menstrual cycle, Strength training, Isometric exercise


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease involving brain and spinal cord. Weakness, cognitive impairment, pain, depression and fatigue, as common symptoms of MS, may significantly affect on general health of MS patients. This study aimed to investigate the influence of yoga and aerobic exercise on fatigue, pain, and psychosocial status among these patients.

Concepts: Psychology, Symptoms, Symptom, Multiple sclerosis, Strength training, Cerebrospinal fluid, Exercise physiology, Aerobic exercise


The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on body weight and vascular reactivity in overweight individuals.

Concepts: Exercise, Strength training, Weight training, Resistance training


This study examined low volume resistance training (RT) in trained participants with and without advanced training methods.

Concepts: Training


Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as “shin splints,” is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes. The aim of this study was to study the relationship between Shin splints, anthropometric characteristics and some indicators of body composition.

Concepts: Stress, Shin splints