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Journal: The Journal of school nursing : the official publication of the National Association of School Nurses

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Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331 healthy adolescents (ages 14-17 years). Heavy Internet use was defined as ≥2 hr/day, moderate use as <2 hr/day and ≥5 days/week, and light use as <2 hr/day and ≤4 days/week. Elevated BP was defined as systolic or diastolic BP ≥90th percentile. Heavy Internet users had statistically significantly higher odds of elevated BP compared to light Internet users. School nurses can play an important role in preventing high BP through assessment of BP and other health behaviors including Internet use, and health teaching to individuals, student groups, faculty, and parents to increase awareness of the relationship between Internet use and health.

Concepts: Blood pressure

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The school environment is an ideal setting for healthy weight programming with adolescents. The federal government has reinforced the importance of school-based health promotion. The current study examined the preliminary influence of the 2006 school wellness policy requirement of the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act (CNWICRA) on adolescent Body Mass Index (BMI) and physical education participation. Nationally representative data from the 2003 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) were used. The authors examined BMI percentile and physical education participation based on survey year and geographic region. Results suggest a slight decrease in BMI with no changes in physical education participation. A main effect for geographic region was found for both physical education participation and BMI percentile, while a geographic region-by-survey year interaction was discovered when analyzing BMI percentiles. Results suggest a need for continued investigation and may inform future healthy weight programming and geographically tailored wellness policies.

Concepts: Health, Nutrition, Geography, Mass, Body mass index, Federal government of the United States, Nursing, Regional geography

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Bullying has negative consequences for health and quality of life of students. This study is part of a pilot project, “School Health,” which included a web-based questionnaire completed by students before a consultation with the school nurse. The aim of this study was to explore how students experience answering questions about bullying before an individual consultation and how they talk about bullying with the school nurse. This study had qualitative design with individual and focus group interviews and involved 38 students aged 13-14 years, both boys and girls, from three schools. Data were analyzed according to Kvale’s three levels of interpretation within a phenomenological and hermeneutic perspective. The students found it difficult to report being bullied. They expressed confidence in the school nurse and liked talking with her. Some complained about the school environment and reported that having a friend was important.

2

To assess the prevalence of weight misperception in American adolescents and its association with diet and physical activity behaviors, Youth Risk Behavior Survey data were utilized for this study. Based on reported and perceived weight, adolescents in the study were grouped into four categories (true negative [52.4%] = normal body mass index [BMI]/accurate weight perception; false negative [11.3%] = high BMI/weight misperception; false positive [11.6%] = normal BMI/weight misperception; and true positive [24.8%] = high BMI/accurate weight perception). Diet and physical activity of adolescents were compared in these categories. A total of 12,016 participants were included in our analysis (74.9% aged 15-17 years, 54.5% Whites, 52% females). Almost a third (31.8%) were overweight and obese, and more than a fifth (22.9%) misperceived their weight (11.6% overestimated and 11.3% underestimated their weight). In a gender-stratified analysis, the odds of avoiding a healthy diet and physical inactivity were higher among those with body weight misperception.

1

Childhood obesity prevalence rates in the United States are the highest in the rural Appalachian areas. Teens mentoring younger children to reverse obesity health risks are an understudied approach. This randomized-controlled trial compared the effects of two curriculum delivery methods and assessed the mediating effects of the number of sessions attended on the outcomes. The control group received the 8-week Just for Kids! curriculum via an adult teacher in a classroom and the experimental group received the same curriculum via individual teen mentoring. Data collected at baseline and postintervention were analyzed using multilevel linear models. Each of the outcomes (e.g., body mass index, blood pressure, current lifestyle behaviors) were modeled separately. Only the mentored children demonstrated improved current lifestyle behaviors (e.g., physical activity and dietary patterns) and health outcomes. Teen mentoring was an effective and efficacious approach to impact the lifestyle patterns and health outcomes of children in a school setting.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, United States, Effectiveness, Body mass index, Child, Childhood, Body shape

0

Bullying and sexual harassment are considered widespread public health concerns because they may have negative effects on physical and mental health. However, more studies are necessary that relate these forms of victimization and their overlap with subjective well-being. This study explores the prevalence and association between different forms of bullying victimization, sexual harassment, and life satisfaction using a sample of 47,114 students aged 16-18 years and from 646 Peruvian educational institutions. Face-to-face bullying was the most reported type of victimization, followed by cyberbullying. There was a large degree of overlap between these two forms of bullying as well as between traditional bullying and sexual harassment. This overlap causes a decrease in life satisfaction in late adolescents. Thus, the need of preventing the negative dynamics of violence in order to prevent the overlapping of different violence forms in adolescence is discussed. Finally, implications for school nurses are outlined.

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Stress has a negative impact on students' daily lives and can be associated with recurrent pain. School nurses play a key role in supporting young people with stress-related pain. The purpose of this qualitative interview study was to elucidate school nurses' experiences of encountering students with recurrent pain when practicing person-centred care. The school nurses were based at public and private schools and worked with students aged 12-19. Data were collected through interviews with 18 school nurses and analyzed with deductive content analysis. The school nurses felt that actively listening to the students' narratives about daily life with recurrent pain, and co-creation of a health plan, encouraged the students to participate as partners in their own care and strengthened their relation with the students. The application of a person-centred approach in school health care meant that traditional knowledge transfer was replaced with a dialogue that reflects both the student’s and school nurse’s perspective.

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Child abuse recognition and the protection of children is a global concern. In Sweden, the role of the school nurse (SN) is to promote schoolchildren’s health and development and to identify and prevent harm. The aim of this study was to describe Swedish SN experiences of suspecting, identifying, and reporting child abuse and to compare them with respect to (a) years of experience as SN, (b) age of SN, and © pupil population size. A descriptive design was used. Two-hundred and thirty-three SNs completed a survey detailing their experiences. Most SNs (96%) reported having suspected a child suffering from physical or psychological abuse. Approximately half of them reported occurrences of honor-related violence (54%) and of child sexual abuse (57%). SNs with less nursing experience reported significantly less recognition and reporting of child abuse. The findings indicate that experiences of child abuse are common. Thus, it is vital that SNs have the necessary competency and support to identify and report suspected child abuse.

0

Type I diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common childhood diseases and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing at alarming rates. Given that children spend a great percentage of their time in school, this setting is a critical environment for models of care that lead to better management of this and other health conditions. The School Nurses Managing Diabetes Care ECHO was offered to Colorado school nurses to build their capacity in providing evidence-based management of T1D. The purpose of this effort was to (1) determine whether or not the model could be used as a tool of collaboration and dissemination for school nurses across Colorado and (2) assess the effectiveness of the “School Nurses Managing Diabetes Care” ECHO learning series. Post-series survey results demonstrated a 25% increase in self-efficacy ratings, moving learners from “average among my peers” toward “competent.” Additionally, all respondents planned to make one or more practice changes to improve care for students with T1D. Expanding the use of the ECHO model to implement intensive management of children and youth with T1D is critically important as rates of this and other chronic conditions continue to increase.

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Children in two communities of a large city in the Midwestern United States have higher rates of asthma than other areas of the city. The communities have barriers to accessing care, including high rates of unemployment and being uninsured and undocumented. A mobile van provides no-cost asthma care to children at schools in these communities, but use of these services has decreased more than 50% over the past 5 years. School nurses have the potential to improve asthma outcomes by collaborating with health-care providers. The purpose of the program was to increase the number of appointments scheduled and attended on the asthma van at both schools. For this program, we (a) implemented an unaccompanied minor consent, (b) enhanced care coordination, and © improved a respiratory health survey tool. Results showed an increased number of appointments scheduled and attended on the asthma van. The program was successful even though community-specific barriers existed.