Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The Journal of pediatrics


To test maternal voice alarm effectiveness under residential conditions and determine whether personalizing the maternal voice alarm message with the child’s first name improves effectiveness.


To evaluate the characteristics of children with cotton-tip applicator (CTA)-related ear injuries.

Concepts: United States, Injuries, Injury


To determine the potential influence of relative age on the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in reference to an Asian country.

Concepts: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Hyperactivity


To describe the rapid implementation of an adult coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) unit using pediatric physician and nurse providers in a children’s hospital and to examine the characteristics and outcomes of the first 100 adult patients admitted.


To examine independent associations between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep duration from birth through 6.75 years, and body mass index (BMI) through 15 years of age in a population-based cohort.

Concepts: Body mass index


To determine the extent to which time spent with digital devices predicts meaningful variability in pediatric sleep.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between autism and the level of immunologic stimulation received from vaccines administered during the first 2 years of life. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from a case-control study conducted in 3 managed care organizations (MCOs) of 256 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 752 control children matched on birth year, sex, and MCO. In addition to the broader category of ASD, we also evaluated autistic disorder and ASD with regression. ASD diagnoses were validated through standardized in-person evaluations. Exposure to total antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides from vaccines was determined by summing the antigen content of each vaccine received, as obtained from immunization registries and medical records. Potential confounding factors were ascertained from parent interviews and medical charts. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between ASD outcomes and exposure to antigens in selected time periods. RESULTS: The aOR (95% CI) of ASD associated with each 25-unit increase in total antigen exposure was 0.999 (0.994-1.003) for cumulative exposure to age 3 months, 0.999 (0.997-1.001) for cumulative exposure to age 7 months, and 0.999 (0.998-1.001) for cumulative exposure to age 2 years. Similarly, no increased risk was found for autistic disorder or ASD with regression. CONCLUSION: In this study of MCO members, increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines during the first 2 years of life was not related to the risk of developing an ASD.

Concepts: Immune system, Vaccine, Antigen, Autism, Pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger syndrome, Autism spectrum, PDD-NOS


To evaluate trends in blood lead levels in children <6 years of age, this Quest Diagnostics Health Trends report builds on previously reported National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data with a much larger national group and adds more detail and novel assessments.

Concepts: Health, Nutrition, Report, Psychometrics


To compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human milk.

Concepts: Childbirth, Nutrition, Milk, Parenteral nutrition, Preterm birth


OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that mother’s use of antibiotics in pregnancy could influence asthma and eczema in early life. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood cohort of children born of mothers with asthma (N = 411). Severe asthma exacerbations and eczema were diagnosed by research unit physicians. Replication was sought in children from the Danish National Birth Cohort (N = 30 675). Asthma outcomes were hospitalization and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Eczema was defined by an algorithm developed from cases of clinically verified eczema. All children were followed to age 5 years in a cohort study design. RESULTS: The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood data showed increased risk of asthma exacerbation (hazard ratio 1.98 [95% CI 1.08-3.63]) if mothers had used antibiotics during third trimester. The Danish National Birth Cohort confirmed increased risk of asthma hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.17 [1.00-1.36]), and inhaled corticosteroids (1.18 [1.10-1.27]) in the children if mothers used antibiotics any time during pregnancy. In the subgroup of mothers using antibiotics for nonrespiratory infection, the children also had increased risk of asthma. CONCLUSION: We found increased risk of asthma associated with maternal antibiotic use in a clinical study of a birth cohort with increased risk of asthma and replicated this finding in an unselected national birth cohort, and in a subgroup using antibiotics for nonrespiratory infections. This supports a role for bacterial ecology in pre- or perinatal life for the development of asthma.

Concepts: Cohort study, Pregnancy, Experimental design, Clinical trial, Bacteria, Asthma, Antibiotic, Mother