SciCombinator

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Journal: The Journal of pediatrics

168

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the flowcharts and discriminators of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) can be used as indicators of alarming signs of serious febrile illness to predict the risk of hospitalization for febrile children who present at the emergency department (ED). STUDY DESIGN: Observational study, which included 2455 children (<16 years) who came to the ED of a university hospital with fever as their main complaint (May 2007-July 2009). Alarming signs for serious febrile illness were matched with MTS flowcharts and discriminators. At triage, the percentage of alarming signs positive was calculated. The diagnostic ability of the percentage of alarming signs positive to identify children at risk of hospitalization was assessed by calculating positive and negative likelihood ratios. RESULTS: Thirty percent of children had at least 1 alarming sign positive at triage. Twenty-three percent were hospitalized. Positive likelihood ratios of hospitalization were 5.0 (95% CI: 3.9-6.5) for children with >20% of alarming signs positive at triage and 12.0 (95% CI: 5.2-27.6) for those with >40% of alarming signs positive. Negative likelihood ratios were 0.8 (95% CI: 0.8-0.8) and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.9-1.0), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: By alternatively using the flowcharts and discriminators of the MTS as alarming signs, rather than urgency classifiers, the MTS can function as a simple, readily available tool to identify febrile children at risk of hospitalization early in the care process. This knowledge may help to improve ED throughput times as well as admission and discharge management at pediatric EDs.

Concepts: Scientific method, Hospital, Fever, 0, Integer, Triage

85

To determine whether preschool-aged children with earlier bedtimes have a lower risk for adolescent obesity and whether this risk reduction is modified by maternal sensitivity.

Concepts: Bedtime

75

To determine the mean duration of fussing and crying and prevalence of colic using modified Wessel criteria in infants in the first 3 months of life.

56

To determine the associations of breast milk intake after birth with neurological outcomes at term equivalent and 7 years of age in very preterm infants STUDY DESIGN: We studied 180 infants born at <30 weeks' gestation or <1250 grams birth weight enrolled in the Victorian Infant Brain Studies cohort from 2001-2003. We calculated the number of days on which infants received >50% of enteral intake as breast milk from 0-28 days of life. Outcomes included brain volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent and 7 years of age, and cognitive (IQ, reading, mathematics, attention, working memory, language, visual perception) and motor testing at 7 years of age. We adjusted for age, sex, social risk, and neonatal illness in linear regression.

Concepts: Psychology, Cohort study, Childbirth, Infant, Brain, Milk, Magnetic resonance imaging, Cognition

42

To evaluate the characteristics of children with cotton-tip applicator (CTA)-related ear injuries.

Concepts: United States, Injuries, Injury

39

To determine the potential influence of relative age on the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in reference to an Asian country.

Concepts: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Hyperactivity

37

To examine independent associations between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep duration from birth through 6.75 years, and body mass index (BMI) through 15 years of age in a population-based cohort.

Concepts: Body mass index

34

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that mother’s use of antibiotics in pregnancy could influence asthma and eczema in early life. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood cohort of children born of mothers with asthma (N = 411). Severe asthma exacerbations and eczema were diagnosed by research unit physicians. Replication was sought in children from the Danish National Birth Cohort (N = 30 675). Asthma outcomes were hospitalization and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Eczema was defined by an algorithm developed from cases of clinically verified eczema. All children were followed to age 5 years in a cohort study design. RESULTS: The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood data showed increased risk of asthma exacerbation (hazard ratio 1.98 [95% CI 1.08-3.63]) if mothers had used antibiotics during third trimester. The Danish National Birth Cohort confirmed increased risk of asthma hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.17 [1.00-1.36]), and inhaled corticosteroids (1.18 [1.10-1.27]) in the children if mothers used antibiotics any time during pregnancy. In the subgroup of mothers using antibiotics for nonrespiratory infection, the children also had increased risk of asthma. CONCLUSION: We found increased risk of asthma associated with maternal antibiotic use in a clinical study of a birth cohort with increased risk of asthma and replicated this finding in an unselected national birth cohort, and in a subgroup using antibiotics for nonrespiratory infections. This supports a role for bacterial ecology in pre- or perinatal life for the development of asthma.

Concepts: Cohort study, Pregnancy, Experimental design, Clinical trial, Bacteria, Asthma, Antibiotic, Mother

32

To evaluate the association between increased exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during the periconception period with risk of congenital anomalies.

Concepts: Congenital disorder, Particulate, Air pollution, Congenital disorders, Congenital

31

To evaluate trends in blood lead levels in children <6 years of age, this Quest Diagnostics Health Trends report builds on previously reported National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data with a much larger national group and adds more detail and novel assessments.

Concepts: Health, Nutrition, Report, Psychometrics