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Journal: The Journal of infection


We evaluated the efficacy of linezolid-based salvage therapy compared with glycopeptide-based therapy in patients with persistent (≥7 days) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSA-B).

Concepts: Pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcaceae


BACKGROUND: Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is often limited by recurrence in 25% of cases. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors of CDI recurrence during a provincial endemic. METHODS: Data was prospectively collected for 1 year in a Montréal hospital. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥ 18 years; admission for ≥ 72 hours; CDI diagnosis during current admission; no CDI diagnosis in the previous 3 months. RESULTS: A total of 121 patients were included, of which 42% were female. Mean age was 77 years old, with a median Charlson comorbidity index of 5. Forty patients (33%) had recurrent disease within 2 months of initial CDI treatment. There were 20 deaths (17%) within the 2-month follow-up period. Higher risk of CDI recurrence was independently associated with older age (HR=2.26 for each decade), female gender (HR=1.56), and lymphopenia at completion of CDI treatment (HR=2.18), while a positive C. difficile antitoxin serology was protective (HR=0.17). CDI recurrence was not associated with lymphopenia at time of diagnosis, underlying comorbidities, severity or treatment of the initial CDI episode, or re-exposure to antibiotics during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Lymphopenia at the end of CDI treatment appears to be a strong marker for CDI recurrence. This available and inexpensive test may identify patients who are at higher risk of CDI recurrence.

Concepts: Gut flora, Infection, Antibiotic resistance, Antibiotic, Comorbidity, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium, Clostridia


Polyomaviruses are ubiquitous, species-specific viruses belonging to the family Papovaviridae. The two most commonly known human polyomaviruses, BK virus and JC virus were first described in the 1970s. Newer human polyomaviruses, namely KI polyoma virus, WU polyoma virus and Merkel cell polyoma virus were identified in the last five years. Most humans encounter BK and JC virus during childhood, causing mild illness. However, when reactivated or acquired in the immunocompromised host, BK and JC virus have been implicated in a number of human clinical disease states. BK is most commonly associated with renal involvement, such as ureteral stenosis, hemorrhagic cystitis and nephropathy. Less commonly, it is associated with pneumonitis, retinitis, liver disease and meningoencephalitis. JC virus is most well known for its association with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and is possibly implicated in the development of various human neoplasms. The following chapter will outline the basic virology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of BK and JC virus and discuss relevant diagnostic and treatment options.

Concepts: AIDS, Virus, Viruses, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, BK virus, JC virus, Polyomavirus, Polyomaviruses


OBJECTIVES: A fundamental to global tuberculosis (TB) control is timely and accurate diagnosis of infectious cases of the disease. Among various methods, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification are the ones with promising prospects. The present study evaluates the diagnostic value of the recently developed IS6110-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in sputum specimens. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study (2008-2009), IS6110-LAMP was evaluated on 101 sputum specimens from 93 highly suspected TB patients and compared to Amplicor MTB test and in-house IS6110-PCR and -nested PCR assays. Culture results or clinical recovery following anti-TB therapy was considered as a reference to prove the TB cases. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of IS6110-LAMP, Amplicor, nPCR, and PCR were respectively 89.6% (69/77 specimens; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.5-95.4%), 76.6% (59/77 specimens; CI, 65.6-85.5%), 79.2% (61/77 specimens; CI, 68.5-87.6%) and 59.7% (46/77 specimens; CI, 47.9-70.8%). The specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 100% for all the tests, and the negative predictive value (NPV) of IS6110-LAMP, Amplicor, nPCR, and PCR were respectively 75%, 57.1%, 60%, and 43.6%. There was an excellent overall agreement between LAMP and nPCR (k 0.92), and between LAMP and Amplicor (k 0.88), in addition to a better tolerance of IS6110-LAMP to inhibitors present in clinical specimens. CONCLUSION: The better diagnostic performance of IS6110-LAMP compared to Amplicor (p=0.009), nPCR (p=0.013) and PCR (p<0.0001) besides its rapidity, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness makes it a valuable method for the detection of MTBC in clinical samples, particularly in resource-limited settings.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value, Sensitivity and specificity, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Biostatistics


Bacterial meningitis and meningococcal sepsis are rare conditions with high case fatality rates. Early recognition and prompt treatment saves lives. In 1999 the British Infection Society produced a consensus statement for the management of immunocompetent adults with meningitis and meningococcal sepsis. Since 1999 there have been many changes. We therefore set out to produce revised guidelines which provide a standardised evidence-based approach to the management of acute community acquired meningitis and meningococcal sepsis in adults. A working party consisting of infectious diseases physicians, neurologists, acute physicians, intensivists, microbiologists, public health experts and patient group representatives was formed. Key questions were identified and the literature reviewed. All recommendations were graded and agreed upon by the working party. The guidelines, which for the first time include viral meningitis, are written in accordance with the AGREE 2 tool and recommendations graded according to the GRADE system. Main changes from the original statement include the indications for pre-hospital antibiotics, timing of the lumbar puncture and the indications for neuroimaging. The list of investigations has been updated and more emphasis is placed on molecular diagnosis. Approaches to both antibiotic and steroid therapy have been revised. Several recommendations have been given regarding the follow-up of patients.

Concepts: Medicine, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Infection, Meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, Meningococcal disease, Lumbar puncture


Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) can reactivate after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and may be associated with significant clinical manifestations.

Concepts: Cell, Herpesviridae, Organ transplant, Cytomegalovirus, Hematopoietic stem cell, Herpesviruses, Human herpesvirus 6, Roseolovirus


To estimate the proportion of over-the-counter antibiotic requests or consultations that resulted in non-prescription supply of antibiotics in community pharmacies globally.


Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) contributes to fetal undernutrition and adverse birth outcomes, and may constitute a developmental origin of metabolic diseases in the offspring. In a Ghanaian birth cohort, we examined the relationships between MiP-exposure and metabolic traits in adolescence.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Africa, Uterus


This phase IIIb, open-label, multicentre, extension study evaluated long-term antibody persistence and booster responses in participants who received a reduced 2+1 or licensed 3+1 meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB)-schedule (infants), or 2-dose catch-up schedule (2-10-year-olds) in parent study NCT01339923.

Concepts: Immune system, Vaccine, Vaccination, Vaccination schedule


To estimate the incidence and burden of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and to investigate risk factors for PHN in the Valencia Region of Spain.