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Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy



Mycobacterium tuberculosis can exist in different states in vitro, which can be denoted as fast multiplying, slow multiplying and non-multiplying. Characterizing the natural growth of M. tuberculosis could provide a framework for accurate characterization of drug effects on the different bacterial states.

Concepts: Tuberculosis, Pathogen, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Robert Koch, Tubercle


‘Superbugs’, bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics, have been in numerous media headlines, raising awareness of antibiotic resistance and leading to multiple action plans from policymakers worldwide. However, many commonly used terms, such as ‘the war against superbugs’, risk misleading people to request ‘new’ or ‘stronger’ antibiotics from their doctors, veterinary surgeons or pharmacists, rather than addressing a fundamental issue: the misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Simple measures of antibiotic consumption are needed for mass communication. In this article, we describe the concept of the ‘antibiotic footprint’ as a tool to communicate to the public the magnitude of antibiotic use in humans, animals and industry, and how it could support the reduction of overuse and misuse of antibiotics worldwide. We propose that people need to make appropriate changes in behaviour that reduce their direct and indirect consumption of antibiotics.


On December 2013, the US FDA proposed a rule stating that manufacturers must provide data to demonstrate that antibacterial soap is more effective than plain soap or water. The objective of the present study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo bactericidal effect of triclosan (the most widely used antiseptic agent in soap) in soap.

Concepts: Antiseptic


The introduction of metagenomic sequencing to diagnostic microbiology has been hampered by slowness, cost and complexity. We explored whether MinION nanopore sequencing could accelerate diagnosis and resistance profiling, using complicated urinary tract infections as an exemplar.

Concepts: Kidney, Bacteria, Microbiology, Urinary tract infection, Urine, Escherichia coli, Pathogen, Microorganism


The UK 5 year antimicrobial resistance strategy recognizes the role of point-of-care diagnostics to identify where antimicrobials are required, as well as to assess the appropriateness of the diagnosis and treatment. A sore throat test-and-treat service was introduced in 35 community pharmacies across two localities in England during 2014-15.

Concepts: Microbiology, United Kingdom, England


All-cause antibiotic prescribing affects bowel flora antimicrobial susceptibility, and may increase risk of urinary autoinoculation with antibiotic-resistant microbes. However, little is known about relative prevalence of, or risk factors for, antimicrobial resistance among potentially pathogenic microbes thought to be contaminating and infecting urine.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic resistance, Escherichia coli, Microorganism, Penicillin, Clostridium difficile


The diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor OP0595 (RG6080) also acts as an antibiotic, targeting PBP2 in Enterobacteriaceae, but this activity is vulnerable to mutational resistance. We used WGS to investigate the basis of this resistance.

Concepts: Bacteria, Virus, Fungus, Antibiotic resistance, Antibiotic, Microorganism, Penicillin


OBJECTIVES: A high proportion of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia die within a few days of the onset of infection. However, predictive factors for early mortality (EM) have barely been examined. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive factors for EM in patients with MRSA bacteraemia. METHODS: All episodes of MRSA bacteraemia were prospectively followed in 21 Spanish hospitals from June 2008 to December 2009. Epidemiology, clinical data, therapy and outcome were recorded. All MRSA strains were analysed in a central laboratory. Mortality was defined as death from any cause occurring in the 30 days after the onset of MRSA bacteraemia. EM was defined as patients who died within the first 2 days, and late mortality (LM) for patients who died after this period. Multivariate analyses were performed by using logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 579 episodes were recorded. Mortality was observed in 179 patients (31%): it was early in 49 (8.5%) patients and late in 130 (22.5%). Independent risk factors for EM were [OR (95% CI)] initial Pitt score >3 [3.99 (1.72-3.24)], previous rapid fatal disease [3.67 (1.32-10.24)], source of infection lower respiratory tract or unknown [3.76 (1.31-10.83) and 2.83 (1.11-7.21)], non-nosocomial acquisition [2.59 (1.16-5.77)] and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy [3.59 (1.63-7.89)]. When predictive factors for EM and LM were compared, inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy was the only distinctive predictor of EM, while endocarditis and lower respiratory tract sources both predicted LM. CONCLUSIONS: In our large cohort of patients several factors were related to EM, but the only distinctive predictor of EM was inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Epidemiology, Pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic resistance, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Respiratory system, Upper respiratory tract


Neisseria gonorrhoeae multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a key tool used to investigate the macroepidemiology of gonococci exhibiting antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, the utility of MLST is undermined by the high workload and cost associated with DNA sequencing of seven housekeeping genes. In this study, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based profiling as a means of circumventing these problems.

Concepts: DNA, Polymerase chain reaction, Molecular biology, SNP array, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Genotyping, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria