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Journal: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

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Intestinal tuberculosis (TB) and Crohn’s disease closely resemble each other clinically and morphologically. Little is known of cytokine regulation in intestinal TB.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Gene expression, Bacteria, Transcription, Ulcerative colitis, Gastroenterology, Malabsorption

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SETTING: Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most common form of lymphadenopathy; its main histopathological finding is granulomatous inflammation.OBJECTIVE: A reverse blot hybridisation assay, REBA Myco-ID(®), was applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue showing granulomatous lymphadenitis to define the causative agents.DESIGN: A total of 119 granulomatous lymphadenitis cases observed between 2000 and 2010 were studied. All tissue samples were treated by haematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were identified using the REBA Myco-ID assay, and resistance to rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH) was determined using REBA MTB-MDR(®).RESULTS: Of the 119 cases, 113 (95%) were positive with the REBA Myco-ID assay, while 20 (16.8%) were positive on acid-fast bacilli smear. Of the 113 positive REBA Myco-ID cases, 110 (92.43%) were identified as M. tuberculosis, 2 (1.7%) as NTM, and 1 (0.8%) as coinfection with M. tuberculosis and M. chelonae. Only 1 (0.9%) of the 110 M. tuberculosis cases was identified as RMP-resistant.CONCLUSION: REBA Myco-ID is a highly sensitive and specific assay for detecting M. tuberculosis and NTM. M. tuberculosis is the main cause of granulomatous lymphadenitis.

Concepts: Microbiology, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staining, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Leprosy, Acid fast bacilli

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Patients with new pulmonary infiltrates on chest computed tomography (CT) scans at a tertiary centre in South Korea.

Concepts: Japan, South Korea

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SETTING: Twenty-four districts in India.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) in each of four geographically defined zones in the country.STUDY DESIGN: Two rounds of house-based tuberculin surveys were conducted 8-9 years apart among children aged 1-9 years in statistically selected clusters during 2000-2003 and 2009-2010 (Surveys I and II). Altogether, 184 992 children were tested with 1 tuberculin unit (TU) of purified protein derivative (PPD) RT23 with Tween 80 in Survey I and 69 496 children with 2TU dose of PPD in Survey II. The maximum transverse diameter of induration was measured about 72 h after test administration. ARTI was computed from the prevalence of infection estimated using the mirror-image method.RESULTS: Estimated ARTI rates in different zones varied between 1.1% and 1.9% in Survey I and 0.6% and 1.2% in Survey II. The ARTI declined by respectively 6.1% and 11.7% per year in the north and west zones; no decline was observed in the south and east zones. National level estimates were respectively 1.5% and 1.0%, with a decline of 4.5% per year in the intervening period.CONCLUSION: Although a decline in ARTI was observed in two of the four zones and at national level, the current ARTI of about 1% in three zones suggests that further intensification of TB control activities is required.

Concepts: Statistics, Tuberculosis, Mantoux test, Tuberculin, Decline, Protein purification, Clemens von Pirquet

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To evaluate the association between oral candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, and to investigate oral candidiasis as a potential tool for TB case finding.

Concepts: HIV, AIDS, Immune system, Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tuberculosis, Candidiasis, Immunodeficiency