Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: The American journal of emergency medicine


During the development of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), a myriad of complications has emerged and although rare, several genitourinary complications have been reported. The bulk of these complications have been secondary to hypercoagulable states, such as priapism. Previous SARS family infections have caused orchitis, though no adult cases of orchitis have been reported. We describe a novel case of SARS-CoV2 bilateral orchitis in a previously healthy 37-year-old male who presented for testicular pain with constitutional symptoms. Additionally, there was no epididymitis associated with the bilateral orchitis. Based on both data in SARS-CoV2 infected males and previous data from prior SARS infections, spermatocyte function may be compromised secondary to this infection. With the various symptoms associated with this virulent pathogen, we characterize the potential complications and importance of fertility follow up.


STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience longer wait times to see a physician after arrival to an emergency department (ED) compared to patients with long bone fracture and patients presenting with all other possible conditions (General Patient Sample), and to attempt to disentangle the effects of race and disease status on any observed differences. METHODS: A cross-sectional, comparative analysis of year 2003 through 2008 data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a nationally representative sample of nonfederal emergency department visits in the United States. Our primary outcome was wait time (in minutes) to see a physician after arrival to an ED. A generalized linear model was used to examine ratios of wait times comparing SCD visits to the two comparison groups. RESULTS: SCD patients experienced wait times 25% longer than the General Patient Sample, though this difference was explained by the African-American race of the SCD patients. SCD patients waited 50% longer than did patients with long bone fracture even after accounting for race and assigned triage priority. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SCD presenting to an ED for care experience longer wait times than other groups, even after accounting for assigned triage level. The African-American race of the SCD patients, and their status as having SCD itself, both appear to contribute to longer wait times for these patients. These data confirm patient anecdotal reports and are in need of intervention.

Concepts: Health care provider, Bone fracture, Patient, Hospital, United States, Physician, Sickle-cell disease, Sickle


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has long been recognized as the leading cause of traumatic death and disability. Tremendous advances in surgical and intensive care unit management of the primary injury, including maintaining adequate oxygenation, controlling intracranial pressure, and ensuring proper cerebral perfusion pressure, have resulted in reduced mortality. However, the secondary injury phase of TBI is a prolonged pathogenic process characterized by neuroinflammation, excitatory amino acids, free radicals, and ion imbalance. There are no approved therapies to directly address these underlying processes. Here, we present a case that was intentionally treated with substantial amounts of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) to provide the nutritional foundation for the brain to begin the healing process following severe TBI. Recent animal research supports the use of n-3FA, and clinical experience suggests that benefits may be possible from substantially and aggressively adding n-3FA to optimize the nutritional foundation of severe TBI patients and must be in place if the brain is to be given the opportunity to repair itself to the best possible extent. Administration early in the course of treatment, in the emergency department or sooner, has the potential to improve outcomes from this potentially devastating public health problem.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fatty acid, Traumatic brain injury, Intracranial pressure, Omega-3 fatty acid, Neurology, Cerebral perfusion pressure, Neurotrauma


Pharmacological properties of the sufentanil sublingual tablet 30mcg (SST 30mcg) could offer potential analgesic advantages in settings requiring noninvasive, acute pain management. The feasibility of using SST 30mcg for moderate-to-severe pain management in the emergency department (ED) was evaluated.

Concepts: Opioid, Pain, Suffering, Pain management, Dublin


The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While systemic inflammation and pulmonary complications can result in significant morbidity and mortality, cardiovascular complications may also occur.


The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has not appeared to affect children as severely as adults. However, approximately 1 month after the COVID-19 peak in New York City in April 2020, cases of children with prolonged fevers abruptly developing inflammatory shock-like states have been reported in Western Europe and the United States. This case series describes four previously healthy children with COVID-19 infection confirmed by serologic antibody testing, but negative by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR swab, presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) with prolonged fever (5 or more days) and abrupt onset of hemodynamic instability with elevated serologic inflammatory markers and cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α). Emergency physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for this COVID-19 associated post-infectious cytokine release syndrome, with features that overlap with Kawasaki Disease (KD) and Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) in children with recent or current COVID-19 infection, as patients can decompensate quickly.


Recent reports have described a secondary Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) after a prior COVID-19 infection that often has features of Kawasaki disease (KD). Here, we report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department hypotensive and tachycardic after 1 week of fevers, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea, and was found to have the classic phenotype of complete Kawasaki’s Disease including nonexudative conjunctivitis, cracked lips, edema of the hands and feet, palmar erythema, a diffuse maculopapular rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Initial laboratory studies were significant for hyponatremia, elevated liver function tests including direct hyperbilirubinemia, and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. Imaging revealed mild gallbladder wall edema, a small area of colitis, and small pleural effusion. She was treated for Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome (KDSS) with pulse dose solumedrol, IVIG, and aspirin with near resolution of symptoms and normalization of vital signs within 1 day and subsequent improvement in her laboratory abnormalities. She was later found to be COVID-19 IgG positive, suggesting past exposure. This case represents an early report of a KD-like illness in an adult with serologic evidence of a previous COVID-19 infection, similar to MIS-C. It suggests that the virulent strain of SARS-CoV-2 appears to cause a post-infectious inflammatory syndrome similar to KD in adults, as well as children. Our understanding of the myriad of COVID-19 symptoms and sequelae is rapidly evolving. We recommend physicians remain vigilant for inflammatory syndromes that mimic KD/KDSS which may warrant prompt treatment with IVIG and steroids.


ST elevation (STE) on the electrocardiogram (ECG) may be due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or other nonischemic pathologies such as left ventricular aneurysm (LVA). The objective of this study was to validate 2 previously derived ECG rules to distinguish AMI from LVA. The first rule states that if the sum of T-wave amplitudes in leads V1 to V4 divided by the sum of QRS amplitudes in leads V1 to V4 is greater than 0.22, then acute ST-segment elevation MI is predicted. The second rule states that if any 1 lead (V1-V4) has a T-wave amplitude to QRS amplitude ratio greater than or equal to 0.36, then acute ST-segment elevation MI is predicted.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Acute coronary syndrome, Ventricular fibrillation, Electrocardiography, QRS complex, Ventricular aneurysm


ST-segment elevation (STE) due to inferior STE myocardial infarction (STEMI) may be misdiagnosed as pericarditis. Conversely, this less life-threatening etiology of ST elevation may be confused for inferior STEMI. We sought to determine if the presence of any ST-segment depression in lead aVL would differentiate inferior STEMI from pericarditis.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Infarction, Troponin, Acute coronary syndrome, Pericarditis, Chest pain


Low-dose ketamine (LDK) may be useful for treatment for opioid-tolerant patients. We conducted a survey of patients and their treating clinicians regarding LDK for analgesia.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Physician, Doctor-patient relationship, Analgesic, Ketamine