SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Swiss medical weekly

168

Few studies have been published on the control of oral anticoagulation treatment in end stage renal disease (ESRD).

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Medicine, Epidemiology, Artificial kidney

168

While skin disorders are commonly seen in paediatric emergency departments (PED), the exact frequency of the various dermatological conditions is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence and spectrum of skin disorders in an urban PED and the need for a dermatological opinion.

Concepts: Medicine, Myocardial infarction, Hospital, Specialty, Acute assessment unit

167

Inflammation is an important component of normal responses to infection and injury. However, chronic activation of the immune system, due to aberrant responses to normal stimuli, can lead to the establishment of a persistent inflammatory state. Such inflammatory conditions are often debilitating, and are associated with a number of important co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease. Resting non-proliferative tissues have distinctive metabolic activities and requirements, which differ considerably from those in infiltrating immune cells, which are undergoing proliferation and differentiation. Immune responses in tissues may therefore be modulated by the relative abundance of substrates in the inflamed site. In turn immune cell activity can feed back and affect metabolic behaviour of the tissues, as most clearly demonstrated in cachexia - the loss of cellular mass driven by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a key mediator of the inflammatory response. Here we discuss the potential for metabolomic analysis to clarify the interactions between inflammation and metabolic changes underlying many diseases. We suggest that an increased understanding of the interaction between inflammation and cellular metabolism, energy substrate use, tissue breakdown markers, the microbiome and drug metabolites, may provide novel insight into the regulation of inflammatory diseases.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Monocyte, Metabolism, Enzyme, Asthma, Infection, Eicosanoid

165

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have reported conflicting results on whether extracorporeal shock wave therapy alleviates the pain of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis patients. We focused on high-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (HESWT) and aimed to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of HESWT versus placebo in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Medical terms, Randomized controlled trial, Evaluation methods, Educational psychology, Shock wave, Plantar fasciitis, Extracorporeal shockwave therapy

163

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a poor prognosis. Survival and quality of life of ALS patients have improved through the implementation of multidisciplinary approaches, the use of percutaneous gastrostomy and of noninvasive (NIV) or invasive ventilation. The question of whether or not to propose invasive ventilation (by tracheostomy: TPPV) to ALS patients remains a matter of debate.

Concepts: Medical terms, Superoxide dismutase, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Neurodegenerative disorders, Lou Gehrig, Stephen Hawking

160

Alzheimer-type amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology was reported in brains of individuals developing iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) after treatment with human cadaveric growth hormone, and interpreted as evidence of human transmission of Aβ by the treatment. Here we investigated the prevalence of Aβ pathology in other instances of iCJD related to dura mater grafts.

Concepts: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

153

Recent clinical and experimental studies indicate that multiple sclerosis develops as consequence of a failed interplay between genetic (“nature”) and environmental (“nurture”) factors. A large number of risk genes favour an autoimmune response against the body’s own brain matter. New experimental data indicate that the actual trigger of this attack is however provided by an interaction of brain-specific immune cells with components of the regular commensal gut flora, the intestinal microbiota. This concept opens the way for new therapeutic approaches involving modulation of the microbiota by dietary or antibiotic regimens.

Concepts: Immune system, DNA, Gene expression, Bacteria, Gut flora, Nutrition, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile

149

Reimbursement systems have difficulties depicting the actual cost of burn treatment, leaving care providers with a significant financial burden. Our aim was to establish a simple and accurate reimbursement model compatible with prospective payment systems.

138

Primary polydipsia (PP) has been defined as excessive intake of fluids. However, the pathogenesis of PP remains unexplored. Different theories include a dysfunction in the thirst mechanism, involvement of the hippocampus, stress-reducing behaviour and lesion occurrences in specific areas of the brain. Most studies have been performed in the psychiatric setting, indicating that PP coincides with schizophrenia, anxiety disorder and depression. However, an increasing number of case reports emphasise the incidence of PP in non-psychiatric patients. As often recommended by healthcare professions and in life-style programmes, the phenomenon of excessive fluid intake appears to be growing, especially in health-conscious and active people. PP is part of the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome, so the differential diagnosis diabetes insipidus (central or nephrogenic) must be excluded. The gold standard when differentiating between these disorders has been the water deprivation test. However, new options for distinguishing between these entities have been proposed e.g., measurement of copeptin, a reliable surrogate marker of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). The major risk of excessive drinking is the development of hyponatraemia and the ensuing complications. In patients with PP, factors reducing the renal excretory capacity of the kidney such as acute illness, medications or low solute intake may accumulate in hyponatraemia. Treatment options for PP remain scarce. Different medication and behavioural therapy have been investigated, but never on a large scale and rarely in non-psychiatric patients. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology, characteristics, complications, and outcomes of patients with PP in the medical and psychiatric patient.

Concepts: Kidney, Medicine, Hypothalamus, Medical terms, Diabetes mellitus, Illness, Vasopressin, Diabetes insipidus

130

Congenital lung anomalies are a group of rare malformations, often diagnosed during the prenatal period. Guidelines on how to manage these patients are currently under debate, especially with regard to prophylactic surgery in asymptomatic patients, or how to proceed with conservative follow-up. Currently, there is no clear consensus on management strategies. A Swiss congenital lung anomaly national database and biobank was created in 2016 to enable data recording and collection of surgical lung samples in order to help define the most appropriate management strategies. This national observational cohort study represents an important step towards a better understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical course of the diseases included under congenital lung anomalies, especially in the context of a small country like Switzerland.