SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Swiss medical weekly

168

Few studies have been published on the control of oral anticoagulation treatment in end stage renal disease (ESRD).

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Medicine, Epidemiology, Artificial kidney

168

While skin disorders are commonly seen in paediatric emergency departments (PED), the exact frequency of the various dermatological conditions is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence and spectrum of skin disorders in an urban PED and the need for a dermatological opinion.

Concepts: Medicine, Myocardial infarction, Hospital, Specialty, Acute assessment unit

167

Inflammation is an important component of normal responses to infection and injury. However, chronic activation of the immune system, due to aberrant responses to normal stimuli, can lead to the establishment of a persistent inflammatory state. Such inflammatory conditions are often debilitating, and are associated with a number of important co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease. Resting non-proliferative tissues have distinctive metabolic activities and requirements, which differ considerably from those in infiltrating immune cells, which are undergoing proliferation and differentiation. Immune responses in tissues may therefore be modulated by the relative abundance of substrates in the inflamed site. In turn immune cell activity can feed back and affect metabolic behaviour of the tissues, as most clearly demonstrated in cachexia - the loss of cellular mass driven by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a key mediator of the inflammatory response. Here we discuss the potential for metabolomic analysis to clarify the interactions between inflammation and metabolic changes underlying many diseases. We suggest that an increased understanding of the interaction between inflammation and cellular metabolism, energy substrate use, tissue breakdown markers, the microbiome and drug metabolites, may provide novel insight into the regulation of inflammatory diseases.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Monocyte, Metabolism, Enzyme, Asthma, Infection, Eicosanoid

165

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have reported conflicting results on whether extracorporeal shock wave therapy alleviates the pain of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis patients. We focused on high-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (HESWT) and aimed to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of HESWT versus placebo in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Medical terms, Randomized controlled trial, Evaluation methods, Educational psychology, Shock wave, Plantar fasciitis, Extracorporeal shockwave therapy

163

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a poor prognosis. Survival and quality of life of ALS patients have improved through the implementation of multidisciplinary approaches, the use of percutaneous gastrostomy and of noninvasive (NIV) or invasive ventilation. The question of whether or not to propose invasive ventilation (by tracheostomy: TPPV) to ALS patients remains a matter of debate.

Concepts: Medical terms, Superoxide dismutase, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Neurodegenerative disorders, Lou Gehrig, Stephen Hawking

31

Alzheimer-type amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology was reported in brains of individuals developing iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) after treatment with human cadaveric growth hormone, and interpreted as evidence of human transmission of Aβ by the treatment. Here we investigated the prevalence of Aβ pathology in other instances of iCJD related to dura mater grafts.

Concepts: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

10

Explanation models for the effectiveness of homeopathy are not supported by natural sciences and the aggregated evidence from clinical trials is unconvincing. From this standpoint, placebo effects seem the most obvious explanation for the therapeutic effects experienced in homeopathy. Still, many physicians continue to prescribe homeopathic treatments.

Concepts: Scientific method, Therapeutic effect, Medicine, Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Nocebo, Placebo, Homeopathy

6

In Switzerland, the prevalence of medical end-of-life practices had been assessed on a population level only once - in 2001 - until in 2013/14 an identical study was conducted. We aimed to compare the results of the 2001 and 2013 studies with a special focus on shared decision-making and patients' decision-making capacity.

Concepts: Patient, Physician, Patience

6

Arthritis encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by inflammation that leads not only to joint damage, bone erosion, severe pain and disability, but also affects other organs of the body, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Although the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of joint diseases are for the most part unknown, a number of nutrient and non-nutrient components of food have been shown to affect the inflammatory process and, in particular, to influence clinical disease progression. The Mediterranean diet model has already been linked to a number of beneficial health effects: both fat and non-fat components of the Mediterranean dietary pattern have been shown to exert important anti-inflammatory activities by affecting the arachidonic acid cascade, the expression of some proinflammatory genes, and the activity of immune cells. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular, have been shown to affect lymphocyte and monocyte functions, crucially involved in adaptive and innate immunity. Although some aspects concerning the mechanisms of action through which the Mediterranean diet pattern exerts its beneficial effects remain to be elucidated, arthritis patients may potentially benefit from it in view of their increased cardiovascular risk and the treatment they require which may have side effects.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Nutrition, Infection, Essential fatty acid, Saturated fat, Eicosanoid, Prostaglandin

4

To evaluate the efficacy of combined methylphenidate and EEG feedback treatment for children with ADHD.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial