Journal: Suicide & life-threatening behavior
Death by suicide demonstrates profound personal suffering and societal failure. While basic sciences provide the opportunity to understand biological markers related to suicide, computer science provides opportunities to understand suicide thought markers. In this novel prospective, multimodal, multicenter, mixed demographic study, we used machine learning to measure and fuse two classes of suicidal thought markers: verbal and nonverbal. Machine learning algorithms were used with the subjects' words and vocal characteristics to classify 379 subjects recruited from two academic medical centers and a rural community hospital into one of three groups: suicidal, mentally ill but not suicidal, or controls. By combining linguistic and acoustic characteristics, subjects could be classified into one of the three groups with up to 85% accuracy. The results provide insight into how advanced technology can be used for suicide assessment and prevention.
The national cost of suicides and suicide attempts in the United States in 2013 was $58.4 billion based on reported numbers alone. Lost productivity (termed indirect costs) represents most (97.1%) of this cost. Adjustment for under-reporting increased the total cost to $93.5 billion or $298 per capita, 2.1-2.8 times that of previous studies. Previous research suggests that improved continuity of care would likely reduce the number of subsequent suicidal attempts following a previous nonfatal attempt. We estimate a highly favorable benefit-cost ratio of 6 to 1 for investments in additional medical, counseling, and linkage services for such patients.
The prevalence of and psychosocial risks for suicide attempts was investigated in college students in Taiwan by gender, after controlling for depressive symptoms. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 2,835 college students; 11.90% of females and 8.87% of males reported they had attempted suicide in the preceding 12 months. After controlling for depression, suicidal ideations were associated with suicide attempts in females, whereas there were fewer positive expectations toward the future associated with suicide attempts in males. Several explanations for the high prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in Taiwan were discussed. In the future, further verification of the findings is necessary.
The number of citations a scholarly work receives is a common measure of its impact on the scientific literature; “citation classics” are the most highly cited works. The content of Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior (SLTB) citation classics is described here. The impact of SLTB citation classics is compared to their counterparts in journals having published the most suicide papers. All data are from the ISI electronic venue on the Web of Science and refer to the number of citations the top 1% of works received in each of ten journals from 1975 through August 10, 2011. Among all ten journals, SLTB ranked first in the number of works on suicide. The principle theme of half of SLTB suicide classics was literature review. The median number of citations for SLTB citation classics (top 1%) was 121.5, with a range between 96 and 279 citations, but classics from generalized psychiatric journals received more citations as anticipated. Journal impact factors explained 73% of the variance in classic’s citation counts across journals. On average, suicide classics received 30% more citations than all classics. Among a second group of five specialized suicide journals, however, SLTB ranked first in average 5-year impact. Although SLTB produced the highest number of suicide articles of any journal, SLTB’s citation classics received fewer citations than suicide classics in high-impact/prestige, general journals. Future work is needed to assess what predicts which SLTB articles ultimately become citation classics.
This study evaluated the Hebrew Reasons for Attempting Suicide Questionnaire (RASQ-H) and its application for suicidality, and mental pain and its tolerance. The sample comprised 97 participants who were inpatient suicide attempters, inpatient nonattempters, or nonpatient controls. Differentiation of the RASQ into internal perturbation-based reasons and extrapunitive/manipulative motivations factors was confirmed, with each scale demonstrating strong internal reliability. While the internal perturbation-based reasons factor related positively to some suicidal manifestations, to mental pain, and to lower mental pain tolerance, the extrapunitive/manipulative motivations factor mostly associated with lower suicidality and had fewer and smaller associations with mental pain and its tolerance.
Existing literature has found a link between disclosure of a stigmatized identity and improved mental health; however, research on the impact of suicide disclosure to family members is scarce. Suicide attempt survivors (n = 74) in the United States were examined to assess whether family reaction moderates or mediates the relationship between suicide disclosure and subsequent depression symptoms. Family reaction did not moderate but did mediate the relationship between disclosure and depression symptoms while controlling for time since most recent attempt. Higher rates of disclosure predicted more positive family reactions, which in turn predicted less severe depression symptoms. Findings indicate that family members can play an essential role in the recovery process after an attempt occurs, which has important implications for both researchers and clinicians who seek to decrease stigma for attempt survivors while simultaneously decreasing the likelihood of future attempts.
The review summarizes current scientific knowledge on the effects of railway critical incidents on railway workers and the associated risk and protective factors. Diagnosable traumatic reactions sometimes occur after a serious incident. However, the most frequent effects are long-term impairments that do not meet diagnostic criteria but can still profoundly affect people’s lives. Risk factors that can increase the negative effects of incidents include characteristics of the employee, coping mechanisms, the type of incident, and the support and care received. Prevention and intervention programs should consider the diversity of reactions to develop relevant support programs.
Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, with an average of 105 suicides committed daily. The association between marital discord and 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was studied in a population-based sample of married adults (N = 1,384). Marital discord was significantly and positively associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and these associations remained significant when controlling for demographics and 12-month prevalence of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Results suggest that marital discord is an important correlate of suicidal outcomes and may be important to target in preventing and treating suicide.
It has long been stated that six people are left behind following every suicide. Despite a lack of empirical evidence, this has been extensively cited for over 30 years. Using data from a random-digit dial survey, a more accurate number of people exposed to each suicide is calculated. A sample of 1,736 adults included 812 lifetime suicide-exposed respondents who reported age and number of exposures. Each suicide resulted in 135 people exposed (knew the person). Each suicide affects a large circle of people, who may be in need of clinician services or support following exposure.
Prevalence of suicide attempts, self-injurious behaviors, and associated psychosocial factors were examined in a clinical sample of transgender (TG) adolescents and emerging adults (n = 96). Twenty-seven (30.3%) TG youth reported a history of at least one suicide attempt and 40 (41.8%) reported a history of self-injurious behaviors. There was a higher frequency of suicide attempts in TG youth with a desire for weight change, and more female-to-male youth reported a history of suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors than male-to-female youth. Findings indicate that this population is at a high risk for psychiatric comorbidities and life-threatening behaviors.