SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Stem cell research & therapy

57

MSC-NTF cells are Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) induced to express high levels of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) using a culture-medium based approach. MSC-NTF cells have been successfully studied in clinical trials for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short non-coding RNA molecules that coordinate post-transcriptional regulation of multiple gene targets. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the miRNA profile could provide a tool for MSC-NTF cell characterization and to distinguish them from the matched MSC from which they are derived.

Concepts: Gene expression, MicroRNA, Stem cell, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Gene, DNA, RNA, Mesenchymal stem cell

15

Repair of large bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), a subset of which is known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, show therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. However, their isolation, expansion and implantation will need to be conducted under good manufacturing practices (GMP) at separate locations. An investigation which mimics this clinical scenario where large bone defects shall be regenerated is required before clinical trials can be initiated.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Stem cells, Calcium, Stromal cell, Bone, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Bone marrow

12

Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

Concepts: Animal, Biology, Organ transplant, Pancreas, Cell, Organ, Human anatomy, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

11

The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of intravenously administered immunoselected STRO-3 + mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) on clinical scores, joint pathology and cytokine production in an ovine model of monoarthritis.

8

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a treatment paradigm that has long been utilized for cancers of the blood and bone marrow but has gained some traction as a treatment paradigm for multiple sclerosis (MS). Success in the treatment of patients with this approach has been reported primarily when strict inclusion criteria are imposed that have eventuated a more precise understanding of MS pathophysiology, thereby governing trial design. Moreover, enhancing the yield and purity of hematopoietic stem cells during isolation along with the utility of appropriate conditioning agents has provided a clearer foundation for clinical translation studies. To support this approach, preclinical data derived from animal models of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, have provided clear identification of multipotent stem cells that can reconstitute the immune system to override the autoimmune attack of the central nervous system. In this review, we will discuss the rationale of HSCT to treat MS by providing the benefits and complications of the clinically relevant protocols, the varying graft types, and conditioning regimens. However, we emphasize that future trials based on HSCT should be focused on specific therapeutic strategies to target and limit ongoing neurodegeneration and demyelination in progressive MS, in the hope that such treatment may serve a greater catchment of patient cohorts with potentially enhanced efficiency and lower toxicity. Despite these future ambitions, a proposed international multicenter, randomized clinical trial of HSCT should be governed by the best standard care of treatment, whereby MS patients are selected upon strict clinical course criteria and long-term follow-up studies of patients from international registries are imposed to advocate HSCT as a therapeutic option in the management of MS.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Hematopoietic stem cell, Chemotherapy, Stem cells, Stem cell, Multiple sclerosis, Immune system, Bone marrow

7

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents arguably the most significant social, economic, and medical crisis of our time. Characterized by progressive neurodegenerative pathology, AD is first and foremost a condition of neuronal and synaptic loss. Repopulation and regeneration of depleted neuronal circuitry by exogenous stem cells is therefore a rational therapeutic strategy. This review will focus on recent advances in stem cell therapies utilizing animal models of AD, as well as detailing the human clinical trials of stem cell therapies for AD that are currently undergoing development.

Concepts: Neurology, Developmental biology, Neuron, Therapy, Clinical trial, Alzheimer's disease, Medicine, Stem cell

5

Due to their ease of isolation, differentiation capabilities, and immunomodulatory properties, the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been assessed in numerous pre-clinical and clinical settings. Currently, whole pancreas or islet transplantation is the only cure for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and, due to the autoimmune nature of the disease, MSCs have been utilised either natively or transdifferentiated into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) as an alternative treatment. However, the initial success in pre-clinical animal models has not translated into successful clinical outcomes. Thus, this review will summarise the current state of MSC-derived therapies for the treatment of T1D in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, in particular their use as an immunomodulatory therapy and targets for the generation of IPCs via gene modification. In this review, we highlight the limitations of current clinical trials of MSCs for the treatment of T1D, and suggest the novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) gene-editing technology and improved clinical trial design as strategies to translate pre-clinical success to the clinical setting.

Concepts: The Canon of Medicine, Medicine, Therapy, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Mesenchymal stem cell, Stem cell, Insulin, Clinical trial

5

The suppressive effect of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) on diverse immune cells is well known, but it is unclear whether MSCs additionally possess immunostimulatory properties. We investigated the impact of human MSCs on the responsiveness of primary natural killer (NK) cells in terms of cytokine secretion.

Concepts: Natural killer cell, Antibody, Immune system

5

Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as it is largely dispensable and readily accessible through minimally invasive procedures such as liposuction. Until recently MSC could only be isolated in a process involving ex-vivo culture and their in-vivo identity, location and frequency remained elusive. We have documented that pericytes (CD45-, CD146+, and CD34-) and adventitial cells (CD45-, CD146-, CD34+) (collectively termed perivascular stem cells or PSC) represent native ancestors of the MSC, and can be prospectively purified using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). In this study we describe an optimized protocol that aims to deliver pure, viable and consistent yields of PSC from adipose tissue. We analysed the frequency of PSC within adipose tissue, and the effect of patient and procedure based variables on this yield.

Concepts: Stem cells, Obesity, Bone marrow, Adipose tissue, Cell biology, Adipocyte, Mesenchymal stem cell, Stem cell

5

An attempt was made to reprogram peripheral blood cells into human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSCs) as a new cell source for cartilage repair.

Concepts: Cell division, Multipotency, Developmental biology, Pluripotency, Stem cells, Cell biology, Induced pluripotent stem cell, Stem cell