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Journal: Skin pharmacology and physiology


Androgenetic alopecia is a condition with a high prevalence worldwide and affects both males and females. Currently, only 2 approved treatments exist: finasteride (males only) and minoxidil 2 or 5% solution (males and females).

Concepts: Male, Androgenic alopecia


Various dietary supplements are claimed to have cutaneous anti-aging properties; however, there are a limited number of research studies supporting these claims. The objective of this research was to study the effectiveness of collagen hydrolysate (CH) composed of specific collagen peptides on skin biophysical parameters related to cutaneous aging. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 69 women aged 35-55 years were randomized to receive 2.5 g or 5.0 g of CH or placebo once daily for 8 weeks, with 23 subjects being allocated to each treatment group. Skin elasticity, skin moisture, transepidermal water loss and skin roughness were objectively measured before the first oral product application (t0) and after 4 (t1) and 8 weeks (t2) of regular intake. Skin elasticity (primary interest) was also assessed at follow-up 4 weeks after the last intake of CH (t3, 4-week regression phase). At the end of the study, skin elasticity in both CH dosage groups showed a statistically significant improvement in comparison to placebo. After 4 weeks of follow-up treatment, a statistically significantly higher skin elasticity level was determined in elderly women. With regard to skin moisture and skin evaporation, a positive influence of CH treatment could be observed in a subgroup analysis, but data failed to reach a level of statistical significance. No side effects were noted throughout the study. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Concepts: Statistics, Statistical significance, Gerontology, Skin, Ronald Fisher, Statistical hypothesis testing, Multiple comparisons, Statistical power


Skin integrity is restored by a physiological process aimed at repairing the damaged tissues. The healing process proceeds in four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. Phytomedicine presents remedies, which possess significant pharmacological effects. It is popular amongst the general population in regions all over the world. Phytotherapeutic agents have been largely used for cutaneous wound healing. These include Aloe vera, mimosa, grape vine, Echinacea, chamomile, ginseng, green tea, jojoba, tea tree oil, rosemary, lemon, soybean, comfrey, papaya, oat, garlic, ginkgo, olive oil and ocimum. Phytotherapy may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention on cutaneous wounds. This article provides a review of the common beneficial medicinal plants in the management of skin wounds with an attempt to explain their mechanisms. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Wound healing, Physiology, Wound, Camellia sinensis, Herbalism, Medicinal plants, Essential oil


In view of globally rising skin cancer rates and harmful effects exerted by sunlight throughout the ultraviolet, visible and infrared ranges, an objective, safe and comprehensive method for determining sunscreen efficacy is required in order to warrant safe sun exposure. In this study, the influence of characteristic active ingredients (chemical filters, physical filters and antioxidants) on different sunscreen indicators, including the universal sun protection factor and the radical formation ratio, was determined and compared to their influence on sun protection factor values. Spectroscopic universal sun protection factor measurements were conducted ex vivo by analyzing tape strips taken from human skin, and radical formation ratio determination was performed via electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using porcine ear skin ex vivo. The sun protection factor determination was conducted according to ISO standards (ISO 24444:2010). It was shown that chemical filters provide a protective effect which was measurable by all methods examined (spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and erythema formation). Physical filters, when used as single active ingredients, increased protective values in universal sun protection factor and sun protection factor measurements but exhibited no significant effect on universal sun protection factor measurements when used in combination with chemical filters or antioxidants. Antioxidants were shown to increase sun protection factor values. Radical formation ratio values were shown to be influenced merely by chemical filters, leading to the conclusion that the universal sun protection factor is the most suitable efficacy indicator for the ultraviolet range.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Light, Sun, Sunlight, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Skin cancer, Sunburn, Sunscreen


In recent years, epidemiological data has demonstrated that alcohol consumption is a risk factor for sunburn, melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. We hypothesized that if the concentration of the antioxidants in the skin has already decreased due to alcohol consumption, then an adequate neutralization of the free radicals induced by ultraviolet light cannot be performed. Based on this hypothesis, we determined the carotenoid concentration in the skin and the minimal erythema dose (MED) of 6 male human volunteers before and after consumption of alcohol or alcohol and orange juice combined. The results showed a significant decrease in the carotenoid concentration in the skin and the MED after alcohol consumption, but no significant decrease after a combined intake of alcohol and orange juice.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Ultraviolet, Melanin, Sunburn, Human skin color, Sunscreen, Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation


Although very common in our society, the effect of hair removal on physiological skin parameters and on the ingress of applied chemicals has not been systematically investigated. Thus, as a first step, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of hair removal through epilation (electric epilation, waxing) and depilation (dry and wet shaving, depilatory cream) on skin properties in vitro using the porcine ear model.


Vitamin D is a secosteroid, which was initially known for its skeletal role; however, in recent years, its functions in different organs have been increasingly recognized. In this review, we will provide an overview of vitamin D functions in the skin physiology with specific focus on its role in certain inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

Concepts: Bone, Vitamin D, Vitamins, Skin, Eczema, Psoriasis, Debut albums, Atopic dermatitis


Our previous double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study indicated that a nutritional supplement named lycopene-rich tomato nutrient complex (TNC) can protect from UVA1-induced (340-400 nm) and UVA- (320-400 nm)/UVB-induced (280-320 nm) upregulation of molecular markers associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and ageing.


The stingless bee is a natural type of bee that exists in almost every continent. The honey produced by this bee has been widely used across time and space. The distinctive feature of this honey is that it is stored naturally in the pot (cerumen), thus contributing to its beneficial properties, especially in the wound healing process.

Concepts: Time, Scar, Wound healing, Healing, Physics, Honey bee, Bee, Universe


Cutaneous aging is a complex and continuous biological process characterized by cellular and molecular alterations, with progressive reduction of the body’s capacity to maintain the homeostasis, senescence, and/or apoptosis of the dermal cells. Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) have elicited studies to evaluate their role of repair and remodeling of the dermis during the skin anti-aging process, since they are regulatory proteins that mediate important signaling pathways and act on cell regeneration and repair processes. FGF acts primarily through binding to tyrosine kinase receptors through the autophosphorylation of their residues, promoting the phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues of specific target proteins such as Raf-1, MAPK/Erk kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1, which are part of the cascade of MAP kinases (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Then, FGF initiate signaling cascades inside the cell, where each kinase activates the following by phosphorylation, resulting in alterations of cellular functions. In addition, the FGF has a relevant role in anti-aging therapy because it is related to collagen and elastin synthesis activation responsible for skin resistance and elasticity, characteristics that are diminished with skin aging. Thus, the present article aims to review several scientific studies that demonstrated the cell signaling involved with the action of FGF on skin aging.