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Journal: Scoliosis

50

Concern exists regarding the potential for chiropractic treatment to cause adverse effects in individuals with scoliosis. The aim of this paper is to present the self-reported responses of 189 scoliosis patients over 3198 unique visits, collected over one calendar year from nine chiropractic clinics, regarding how they felt and the side effects they experienced immediately after chiropractic treatment.

Concepts: Philosophy of science, Alternative medicine, Adverse effect

17

Attitudes regarding non-operative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) may be changing with the publication of BRAiST. Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis Specific Exercises (PSSE) are used to treat AIS, but high-quality evidence is limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of members of the Scoliosis Research Society towards PSSE.

Concepts: Scoliosis, Paul Randall Harrington, Scoliosis Research Society

3

2

In North America, care recommendations for adolescents with small idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) curves include observation or bracing. Schroth scoliosis-specific exercises have demonstrated promising results on various outcomes in uncontrolled studies. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to determine the effect of Schroth exercises combined with the standard of care on quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes and back muscle endurance (BME) compared to standard of care alone in patients with AIS.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, United States, Quality, Quality of life, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Control, North America

1

Routine screening of scoliosis is a controversial subject and screening efforts vary greatly around the world.

Concepts: Scoliosis, Paul Randall Harrington, Scoliosis Research Society, World, Universe, Subroutine

1

This editorial article initiates the school scoliosis screening thematic series of the Scoliosis journal. The various issues on screening policies are discussed; clinical and practical recommendations of setting up school screening programs are also described.

Concepts: Scoliosis, The Various, Pendulum, Pendulum clock

1

There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the cause of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis E(tiology (IBSE).introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has been designated as an on-line Delphi discussion. The text for this debate was written by Dr TB Grivas. It is based on published research from Athens, Greece evaluating schoolchildren age 11–17 years for the relation of body mass index (BMI) to each of truncal asymmetry (TA) and menarcheal status. Girls with relatively lower BMI were found to have a significant excess of severe TAs and significantly later menarche confirming the well-known relation of BMI to menarche. Together with other evidence linking nutritional status to skeletal growth, the observations suggest energy balance via the hypothalamus is related to trunk asymmetry. As with a recent speculative hypothesis for the pathogenesis of AIS in girls, Grivas et al. suggest that the severe TAs involve a genetically-determined selectively increased sensitivity (up-regulation) of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin with asymmetry as an adverse response to stress (hormesis). The TA is expressed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to produce left-right asymmetry in ribs and/or vertebrae leading to severe TAs when beyond the capacity of postural mechanisms of the somatic nervous system to control the shape distortion in the trunk. This EFG discusses the findings and interpretations of the paper by Grivas and colleagues as research at the borderland between the genesis of TA (physiogenesis) and AIS (pathogenesis). It is suggested that TAs, here regarded in common with AIS, result from the combination of secondary sexual development affecting body composition, adolescent skeletal growth velocity, and an asymmetry process. The possible involvement of epigenetic factors is not considered.

Concepts: Nervous system, Scientific method, Hypothalamus, Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, Puberty, Body shape

1

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis allows for observation and timely initiation of brace treatment in order to halt progression. School scoliosis screening programs were abolished in Norway in 1994 for lack of evidence that the programs improved outcome and for the costs involved. The consequences of this decision are discussed.ObjectivesTo describe the detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at a scoliosis clinic during the period 2003–2011, when there was no screening and to compare treatment modalities to the period 1976–1988 when screening was performed. METHODS: Patient demographics, age at detection, family history, clinical and radiological charts of consecutive patients referred for scoliosis evaluation during the period 2003–2011, were prospectively registered. Patients were recruited from a catchment area of about 500000 teenagers. Maturity was estimated according to Risser sign and menarcheal status. Severity of pain was recorded by a verbal 5-point scale from no pain to pain at all times. Physical and neurological examinations were conducted. The detector and patient characteristics were recorded. Referral patterns of orthopedic surgeons at local hospitals and other health care providers were recorded. Patient data was obtained by spine surgeons. Treatment modalities in the current period were compared to the period 1976–1988. RESULTS: We registered 752 patients with late onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 2003–2011. There were 644 (86%) girls and 108 (14%) boys. Mean age at detection was 14.6 (7–19) years. Sixty percent had Risser sign >= 3, whilst 74% were post menarche with a mean age at menarche of 13.2 years. Thirty-one percent had a family history of scoliosis. The mean major curve at first consultation at our clinic was 38 (10 -95 ). About 40% had a major curve >40 . Seventy-one percent were detected by patients, close relatives, and friends. Orthopaedic surgeons referred 61% of the patients. The mean duration from detection to the first consultation was 20(0–27) months. The proportion of the average number of patients braced each year was 68% during the period with screening compared to 38% in the period without screening, while the proportion for those operated was 32% and 62%, respectively ( p=0.002, OR 3.5, (95%CI 1.6 to 7.5). CONCLUSION: In the absence of scoliosis screening, lay persons most often detect scoliosis. Many patients presented with a mean Cobb angle approaching the upper limit for brace treatment indications. The frequency of brace treatment has been reduced and surgery is increased during the recent period without screening compared with the period with the past when screening was still conducted.

Concepts: Health care provider, Medical terms, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Orthopedic surgery, Spinal fusion, Menarche

0

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity, and whilst the isk of progression appears to be biomechanically mediated (larger deformities are more likely to progress), the detailed biomechanical mechanisms driving progression are not well understood. Gravitational forces in the upright position are the primary sustained loads experienced by the spine. In scoliosis they are asymmetrical, generating moments about the spinal joints which may promote asymmetrical growth and deformity progression. Using 3D imaging modalities to estimate segmental torso masses allows the gravitational loading on the scoliotic spine to be determined. The resulting distribution of joint moments aids understanding of the mechanics of scoliosis progression.

Concepts: Vertebral column, Scoliosis, Knowledge

0

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1186/s13013-015-0043-x.].

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Skeletal system, Scoliosis