Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Rhinology


A new procedure, pyriform turbinoplasty, is described and nasal airflow is measured before and after this procedure in a virtual model.

Concepts: Virtual reality


Chronic bacterial rhinosinusitis is a common feature in Cystic fibrosis (CF) as mucociliary clearance in the sinonasal compartment is impaired. Aim of the present prospective study was to compare dynamics of inflammatory markers in the upper and lower airways (UAW/LAW) during systemic antibiotic therapy.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Medicine, Bacteria, Asthma, Pneumonia, Cystic fibrosis, Antibiotic


Berberine (Ber), used widely as an antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory drug, has long been used as a gastrointestinal remedy in Chinese traditional medicine. Recent reports have suggested that Ber suppresses Th17 responses that was mediated by direct actions on T cells and thymic stromal lymphopoietin production in primary mast cells. It has been suggested that Ber may be useful in treating allergic response. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Ber treatment on allergic inflammation in an allergic rhinitis mouse model and to examine the underlying mechanism(s).

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Allergy, Mast cell, Eicosanoid, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Chinese characters, House dust mite


Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) are prescribed for the long-term prophylactic treatment of inflammatory upper airway conditions. Although some systemic absorption can occur via topical routes, the clinical relevance is controversial. The effects of orally administered corticosteroids on intraocular pressure (IOP) and lens opacity (LO) are well established, but the impact of the INCS is less well defined. This study aims to systematically review the literature for evidence of adverse occular events with INCS use.

Concepts: Clinical trial, The Canon of Medicine, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Avicenna,, Affect, Systemic lupus erythematosus


The incidence of acute upper respiratory tract viral infections (URTI) is directly correlated to air temperature with most URTI occurring seasonally in cold weather. This review looks at four types of cold exposure and examines the evidence and possible mechanisms for any relationship to URTI. The effects of cold are discussed as: 1) Chilling of the nose and upper respiratory tract by breathing cold air, 2) Chilling of the mouth and upper digestive tract by ingestion of cold drinks and food, 3) Acute chilling of the body surface, and, 4) Chilling of the body as a whole with a fall in body temperature, hypothermia. Some studies were found to support a relationship between breathing cold air and chilling the body surface with the development of URTI, although this area is controversial. No evidence was found in the literature to support any relationship between ingestion of cold drinks and food and URTI, and similarly no evidence was found to link hypothermia and URTI.

Concepts: Infection, Temperature, Respiratory system, Upper respiratory tract, Upper respiratory tract infection, Lower respiratory tract, Cold, Respiratory tract


Calcium plays an integral role in olfactory signal transduction, including feedback inhibition. Sodium citrate acts as a calcium sequestrant and when applied intranasally, reduces free calcium available for feedback inhibition, which should theoretically improve olfaction. We aimed to investigate the utility of intranasal sodium citrate in improving the olfactory function of hyposmic patients, by performing this prospective placebo controlled, single-blind trial.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Calcium, Olfaction, Sodium citrate


Septoplasty is a frequently performed operation by otolaryngologists to relieve nasal obstruction complaints. When objective measurements tools are not available, preoperative decision-making is based on careful clinical examination. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between type and severity of septal deviation and patient-reported nasal obstruction.

Concepts: Degree of a polynomial, Objective pronoun, Otolaryngology


Common cold is the most common infectious disease of mankind and the term is widely used in the clinical literature as though it were a defined clinical syndrome. Clinical studies on this syndrome often use elaborate symptom scoring systems to diagnose a common cold. The symptom scores are based on a study conducted over 50 years ago to retrospectively diagnose experimental cold and this method cannot be applied to diagnosis of common cold in the community. Diagnosis of the common cold by virology is not feasible because of the number of viruses and the variability in the disease states caused by the viruses. Because of the familiarity of subjects with common cold and the variability in symptomatology it seems a more reasonable approach to use self-diagnosis of common cold for clinical research studies and accept that the common cold is a cultural concept and not a clinical entity.

Concepts: Diagnosis, Medical diagnosis, Medical history


Airway epithelial cells have a well-accepted role in the regulation of local inflammatory processes in allergic and innate defence responses. However, their role the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is unclear. The objective was to investigate whether potential differences in the mRNA expression profile of nasal epithelia from healthy individuals and from CRSwNP patients would shed new light on disease mechanisms.


Topographical differences in trigeminal receptor distribution of the nasal cavity has been investigated so far indirectly using various agonists to stimulate receptors in different locations. However, polymodal activation of trigeminal receptors poses difficulties in such investigation. The aim of our study was to examine the distribution of trigeminal receptor mRNA expression using quantitative PCR.