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Journal: Revista de psiquiatria y salud mental


INTRODUCTION: The Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF) is conceptualized as the frontier that delimits “normal” intellectual functioning from intellectual disability (IQ 71-85). In spite of its magnitude, its prevalence cannot be quantified and its diagnosis has not yet been defined. OBJECTIVES: To elaborate a conceptual framework and to establish consensus guidelines. METHOD: A mixed qualitative methodology, including frame analysis and nominal groups techniques, was used. The literature was extensively reviewed in evidence based medical databases, scientific publications, and the grey literature. This information was studied and a framing document was prepared. RESULTS: Scientific publications covering BIF are scarce. The term that yields a bigger number of results is “Borderline Intelligence”. The Working Group detected a number of areas in which consensus was needed and wrote a consensus document covering the conclusions of the experts and the framing document. CONCLUSIONS: It is a priority to reach an international consensus about the BIF construct and its operative criteria, as well as to develop specific tools for screening and diagnosis. It is also necessary to define criteria that enable its incidence and prevalence. To know what interventions are the most efficient, and what are the needs of this population, is vital to implement an integral model of care centred on the individual.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Literature, Intelligence quotient, Intelligence, Mental retardation, Disability, Concept, Borderline intellectual functioning


Despite cautions by professional associations, benzodiazepines (BZD) and Z hypnotics (BZD/Z) are widely prescribed to older adults who are particularly susceptible to insomnia and anxiety, but who are also more sensitive to drugs adverse events. In this study, we assessed the prescription of BZD/Z drugs in a sample of older adults (≥65) who presented for emergency care after a fall.

Concepts: Benzodiazepine, Hypnotic, Insomnia, Flunitrazepam, Zaleplon, Triazolam, Nonbenzodiazepine, Temazepam


To examine the effectiveness of playing chess as a treatment option for children with ADHD.

Concepts: Chess


Trazodone was authorized for the treatment of depression in the 1970s. Several additional therapeutic uses have been proposed due to its heterogeneous mechanism. This study aims to determine the use of trazodone in the elderly in Spain.


Suicide is an important public health problem, it represents one of the major causes of unnatural death, and there are many factors that affect the risk of suicidal behaviour. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by suicide in Spain and its relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.

Concepts: Time, Health care, Epidemiology, Death, European Union, Demography, Gross domestic product, Suicide


Schizophrenia is a clinically heterogeneous syndrome affecting multiple dimensions of the patient’s life. Treatment requires a multidimensional approach in which we should take into account the effectiveness (the ability of an intervention to get the desired result under ideal conditions), effectiveness (the degree to which the intended effect is obtained under usual clinical practice conditions) and efficiency (the value of the intervention with respect to the cost to the individual or society). In a first phase, a group of 90 national experts from all s, from a multidimensional and multidisciplinary perspective of the disease, defined the concepts of efficiency, effectiveness and efficiency around 7 key dimensions: symptoms; comorbidities; relapse and adherence; insight and subjective experience; cognition; quality of life, autonomy and functional capacity; and inclusion. The main conclusions of this phase are presented in this paper.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Effect, Effectiveness, Dimension, Vector space, Efficacy, String theory, Cartesian coordinate system


The depression is the most prevalent state throughout the life of the bipolar patient. Ketamine has been shown to be an effective and rapid treatment for depression. The objective of the present work is to perform a systematic review on the efficacy and safety of ketamine as treatment of bipolar depression, as well as its different patterns of administration. The search found 10 relevant manuscripts that met the inclusion criteria: one clinical trial, 5 cohort studies, and 4 case reports. Intravenous infusion was used in 60% of the studies. According to data, ketamine seems to be an effective and safe treatment for bipolar depression, although the length of its effect is short. Adverse effects observed generally occurred at the time of infusion, and tended to completely disappear within 1-2h. Therefore, more studies are necessary to explore new patterns of administration, as well as on its safety and adverse effects.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Effect, Effectiveness, Clinical research, Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder


Studies of executive function in autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability (ASD-WID) patients are contradictory. We assessed a wide range of executive functioning cognitive domains in a sample of children and adolescents with ASD-WID and compared them with age-, sex-, and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched healthy controls.

Concepts: Cognitive science, Autism, Pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger syndrome, Autism spectrum, Intelligence quotient, Working memory, Executive functions


Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a relatively new psychotherapy that has gradually gained popularity for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present work, the standardised EMDR protocol is introduced, along with current hypotheses of its mechanism of action, as well as a critical review of the available literature on its clinical effectiveness in adult post-traumatic stress disorder. A systematic review of the published literature was performed using PubMed and PsycINFO databases with the keywords «eye movement desensitization and reprocessing» and «post-traumatic stress disorder» and its abbreviations «EMDR» and «PTSD». Fifteen randomised controlled trials of good methodological quality were selected. These studies compared EMDR with unspecific interventions, waiting lists, or specific therapies. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that EMDR is a useful, evidence-based tool for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, in line with recent recommendations from different international health organisations.

Concepts: Medicine, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Complex post-traumatic stress disorder, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Psychotherapy, Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing


Many studies have demonstrated that the risk of suicide in prison is higher than in the general population. This study has two aims. First, to explore the risk of suicide in men sentenced in Andalusian prisons. And second, to study the sociodemographic, criminal and, especially, psychopathological factors associated with this risk.

Concepts: Sociology, Sentence, Cultural studies, Prison, Capital punishment, Criminal justice, Corrections, Penology